Regulation of pre-mRNA splicing is a key process for most if not all eukaryotes. The process can, in the abstract, be considered as a series of trans-acting factors that interact with cis-motifs in the RNA to enable the removal of introns and joining of exons. As the cis factors need not only be the splice sites themselves, but also motifs in the exons, the splicing process has the potential to impose selective constraint on exonic sequence in addition to the normal selection on the amino acid content of the protein. To understand this more clearly, in this thesis, I mainly focus on a type of important and widely investigated cis-motifs, exonic splicing enhancers (ESEs), which bind with SR proteins to re-enforce the splice sites and so ensure splicing correctly. First, I explore splice-related cis-motif usage of the Ectocarpus genome, which is a species phylogenetically very distant from vertebrates but, like vertebrates in having abundant large introns. A deep phylogenetic conservation of exonic splice-related constraints is observed (Chapter II). Then I extend the analysis across taxa in a phylogenetically explicit framework. In this section stronger selection on exon end synonymous sites can be detected within humans when the exons are flanked by larger introns. Additionally I report evidence that reduced Ne might lead to larger introns and weakened splice sites. Thus I suggest an unusual circumstance in which selection (for cis-motifs to control error-prone splicing) might be stronger when population sizes are smaller; this is unexpected and would be a necessary complement to nearly-neutral theory (Chapter III). Third, I ask whether what we know about biases in the usage of ESEs and splicing control elements allows us to understand where in human genes pathogenic mutations tend to occur (Chapter IV). By examining the relationship between determinants of the usage of splice-associated cis-motifs and the distribution of human pathogenic SNPs, I found certain exons are vulnerable to splice disruption owing to low ESE density and a “fragile” exon model we proposed could describe and explain this phenomenon (Chapter IV). Finally I perform preliminary analysis, with a view to biotechnological optimization of transgenes, to address whether there might be such a thing as a tissue specific ESE. To this end I examine ESE usage in tissue specific genes. I find some preliminary evidence for tissue specific biased usage of certain ESEs.
|Date of Award||5 Jan 2016|
|Supervisor||Laurence Hurst (Supervisor)|
- Exonic splicing enhancer
- Synonymous mutation