The Evolution and Development of QA Approaches and Associated Processes in Lebanese Higher Education; System and Institutional Perspectives

  • Wael Hamze

Student thesis: Doctoral ThesisDoctor of Business (DBA)


The application of QA is a demanding reform area for Lebanon due to the distinctive organisation of its HE system and its cultural setting. This study explores different QA practices, approaches and systems in aim to establish a theoretical reference framework for the development of QA in HE in Lebanon. A major contribution of this study resides in the fact that it is the first attempt to approach the topic while drawing upon students’ interest and the perceptions of numerous HE stakeholders. Using a qualitative research method, particularly semi-structured interviews, this study explored the QA nature within three HEIs in Lebanon and at the national level. This study shows that HEIs in Lebanon understand the importance of QA in HE, yet several lack the necessary standards, resources and methods to establish a quality culture. This study asks: how should the QA system and its associated process be developed in Lebanese HE in light of the existing experience; drawing on borrowing from international models and evident good practice in ways appropriate to the unique setting and cultural circumstances? This study shows that the need for the construction of a QA framework is exacerbated by the huge demand for economic, political and educational reforms in Lebanon. With the lack of a national QA framework, HEIs in Lebanon are left to define quality and set QA standards on their own. Given the lack of national standards, this study shows that several HEIs in Lebanon are using international accreditations to develop and ensure education quality. Hence, this study suggests the establishment of a Lebanese QA system while aligning it with international best practices in order to ensure quality among all Lebanese HEIs. Nevertheless, this study also suggests that such alignment should be carefully established taking into account the given cultural and political setting of Lebanon. This study depicts that collaboration at both the national and institutional level is needed to establish a QA system befitting Lebanon’s conditions.
Date of Award17 Feb 2021
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • University of Bath
SupervisorRobin Shields (Supervisor), Dan Davies (Supervisor) & John L Davies (Supervisor)


  • Higher Education
  • Quality assurance

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