Sonochemical and ultrasonic output analyses on dental endosonic instruments

  • Timm Joyce Tiong

Student thesis: Doctoral ThesisPhD


Ultrasonic instruments are used with the aid of an irrigant such as NaOCl in endodontic treatments to remove dentin debris and calculus from infected root canals. This cleaning process may be assisted by various factors, such as acoustic streaming, and the production of radicals and microjets from the collapse of transient cavitation bubbles. The aim of this project is to understand the principal factors affecting the performance of a number of different endosonic files in order to correlate to their cleaning efficiencies. Characterisation includes detecting transient cavitation activity, mapping the areas of cavitation, assessing the file vibration movements and the streaming effects produced by the files. Experiments to assess the cleaning efficiencies of the files include: emulsification, dye removal with a dental irrigant, ink and hydroxyapatite paste removal from model systems designed to mimic the structure of a tooth. The results show that there is a correlation between the sonochemical output and the cleaning efficiencies, and this brings in further study on the possible factors that may affect the production of transient cavitation and the vibration profiles of the endosonic files. Lastly, a series of computational simulation of the acoustic pressure fields from different endosonic files were performed. Correlations of the simulated and experimental results showed the difference in ultrasonic output of the endosonic files is strongly related to their design. This work provides the basis and techniques necessary to perform a comprehensive study on the design of the endosonic files in order to enhance and optimise their cleaning efficiencies during clinical use and to inform future endodontic practice.
Date of Award31 May 2012
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • University of Bath
SupervisorGareth Price (Supervisor)


  • sonochemistry
  • ultrasound
  • endosonic
  • hypochlorite
  • acoustic

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