Printing Materials and Processes for Electrochemical Applications

Student thesis: Doctoral ThesisPhD


3D printing has revolutionised traditional manufacturing methods, opening up and distributing design and production of low cost, custom objects to virtually anyone. Tailoring of print material and part geometry allows for the benefits of this technology to reach multiple engineering and scientific fields, given appropriate design.A multidisciplinary approach concerning development of new print materials and methods was undertaken with the aim of further expansion and application of 3D printing towards electrochemical applications. Specific requirements of materials used in this domain, such as conductivity and chemical stability, led to development of functional printable carbon composites, compatible with consumer grade 3D printers. This allows facile production of cheap, reusable, disposable, electrodes for analytical applications, demonstrating heavy metal detection in aqueous media and allowing further tailoring to specific applications to be easily implemented. A new method for printing of cellulose solutions was developed, with post processing of printed parts resulting in biocompatible, porous, conductive structures. When used as electrodes in microbial fuel cells, improved power and current output over traditionally used carbon cloth electrodes was achieved.Other developments resulting from this work applicable to other fields include a novel trajectory generation method based on exponential functions which can be applied to practically any robotic system, as well as improvements to the production process of metal alloy filaments for 3D printing of metallic components.
Date of Award1 Mar 2017
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • University of Bath
SupervisorPejman Iravani (Supervisor) & Mirella Di Lorenzo (Supervisor)


  • 3D printing
  • Additive manufacturing
  • Microbial fuel cell
  • Electroanalysis

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