Nonlinearity in photonic crystal fibres

  • Chunle Xiong

Student thesis: Doctoral ThesisPhD


This thesis introduces the linear and nonlinear properties of photonic crystal fibre (PCF), describes the fabrication and characterisation of different PCFs, and demonstrates their applications to supercontinuum (SC) generation and single-photon sources. The linear properties of PCF include endlessly single-mode transmission, highly controllable dispersion and birefringence. These unique properties have made PCFs the best media to demonstrate all kinds of nonlinear effects such as self-phase modulation (SPM), cross-phase modulation (XPM), Raman effects, four-wave mixing and modulation instability (FWM and MI), and soliton effects. The combination of these nonlinear effects has led to impressive spectral broadening known as SC generation in PCFs. The intrinsic correlation of signal and idler photons from FWM has brought PCF to the application of single-photon generation. Four projects about SC generation were demonstrated. The first was visible continuum generation in a monolithic PCF device, which gave a compact, bright (-20 dBm/nm), flat and single-mode visible continuum source extending to short wavelength at 400 nm. The second was polarised SC generation in a highly bire-fringent PCF. A well linearly polarised continuum source spanning 450-1750 nm was achieved with >99% power kept in a single linear polarisation. This polarised continuum source was then applied to tuneable visible/UV generation in a BIBO crystal. The third was residual pump peak removal for SC generation in PCFs. The fourth was to design an all-fibre dual-wavelength pumping for spectrally localised continuum generation. Two projects about photon pair generation using FWM were then demonstrated. One was an all-fibre photon pair source designed in the telecom band for quantum communication. This source achieved >50% heralding efficiency which is the highest in fibre photon pair sources reported so far. Another one was to design birefringent PCFs for naturally narrow band photon pair generation in the Si SPAD high detection efficiency range. 0.122 nm bandwidth signal photons at 596.8 nm were generated through cross polarisation phase matched FWM in a weakly birefringent PCF pumped by a picosecond Ti:Sapphire laser at 705 nm in the normal dispersion regime.
Date of Award15 Jul 2008
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • University of Bath
SupervisorWilliam Wadsworth (Supervisor)


  • nonlinearity
  • supercontinuum
  • photonic crystal fibre
  • single photon

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