Non-inductive solenoid coils based on second generation high-temperature superconductors and their application in fault current limiters

  • Fei Liang

Student thesis: Doctoral ThesisPhD


The gradual increase in global warming and environmental pollution has made low-carbon technologies an urgent need for the whole world. Superconducting technology, which is known for its extremely high conductivity and high power density, is capable enough to provide novel solutions, contributing to the future smart grid, thus aiding the power industry towards the realisation of a low-carbon and green planet. In recent decades, several industrial applications using superconducting technology have been developed. Of them, particularly in the power industry, a range of superconducting applications including superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), superconducting motors/generators, superconducting cables and superconducting fault current limiters (SFCLs) have been developed. Among them, SFCLs are one of the most promising and are successfully being implemented in power distribution networks. SFCLs exhibit low impedance during normal operation and gain considerable impedance under a fault condition, providing a new solution to the increasingly high fault current levels. However, most of the SFCL projects are limited to low-voltage and medium-voltage levels, there are very few successful operational trials of high voltage SFCLs. This thesis, for the first time, studies the comprehensive characteristics of solenoid type SFCLs based on second generation (2G) high temperature superconductors (HTS), which may be successfully implemented in power grids with high voltage levels.The main contributions of this work include three aspects: 1) proposing an innovative method for simulating the AC losses of the solenoid coils and an electro-magneto-thermal model for simulating the SFCL’s current limiting property; 2) comprehensive and in-depth comparison study concerning the application of the two types of non-inductive solenoid coils (braid type and non-intersecting type) in SFCLs both experimentally and numerically; and 3) the first and thorough discussion of the impact of different parameters such as pitch and radius of coils to the overall performance of braid type SFCLs and the validation of the braid type SFCL concept with a 220 V/300 A SFCL prototype.Based on these experimental and simulation works, the thesis provide strong guidance for the development of future non-inductive solenoid type SFCLs based on 2G HTS, which are promising for high voltage level power grid applications.
Date of Award9 Oct 2017
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • University of Bath
SupervisorWeijia Yuan (Supervisor)


  • fault current limiter
  • High temperature superconductors
  • YBCO

Cite this