The rapidly increasing number of cores available in multicore processors does not necessarily lead directly to a commensurate increase in performance: programs written in conventional languages, such as C, need careful restructuring, preferably automatically, before the benefits can be observed in improved run-times. Even then, much depends upon the intrinsic capacity of the original program for concurrent execution. Using software techniques to parallelize the sequential application can raise the level of gain from multicore systems. Parallel programming is not an easy job for the user, who has to deal with many issues such as dependencies, synchronization, load balancing, and race conditions. For this reason the role of automatically parallelizing compilers and techniques for the extraction of several threads from single-threaded programs, without programmer intervention, is becoming more important and may help to deliver better utilization of modern hardware. One parallelizing technique that has been shown to be an effective for the parallelization of applications that have irregular control flow and complex memory access patterns is Decoupled Software Pipeline (DSWP). This transformation partitions the loop body into a set of stages, ensuring that critical path dependencies are kept local to a stage. Each stage becomes a thread and data is passed between threads using inter-core communication. The success of DSWP depends on being able to extract the relatively fine-grain parallelism that is present in many applications. Another technique which offers potential gains in parallelizing general purpose applications is slicing. Program slicing transforms large programs into several smaller ones that execute independently, each consisting of only statements relevant to the computation of certain, socalled, (program) points. This dissertation explores the possibility of performance benefits arising from a secondary transformation of DSWP stages by slicing. To that end a new combination method called DSWP/Slice is presented. Our observation is that individual DSWP stages can be parallelized by slicing, leading to an improvement in performance of the longest duration DSWP stages. In particular, this approach can be applicable in cases where DOALL is not. In consequence better load balancing can be achieved between the DSWP stages. Moreover, we introduce an automatic implementation of the combination method using Low Level Virtual Machine (LLVM) compiler framework. This combination is particularly effective when the whole long stage comprises a function body. More than one slice extracted from a function body can speed up its execution time and also increases the scalability of DSWP. An evaluation of this technique on six programs with a range of dependence patterns leads to considerable performance gains on a core-i7 870 machine with 4-cores/8-threads. The results are obtained from an automatic implementation that shows the proposed method can give a factor of up to 1.8 speed up compared with the original sequential code.
|Date of Award||1 Jan 2014|
|Sponsors||Minstery of Higher Education and Scientific Research|
|Supervisor||Julian Padget (Supervisor) & John Fitch (Supervisor)|
- decoupled software pipeline
- thread-level parallelism
- automatic restructuring