Doctorate in Clinical Psychology: Main Research Portfolio
: 1) A systematic review of self-caught methodologies for measuring mind wandering with meta-awareness; 2) Feasibility and acceptability of group compassion focused therapy for psychosis in a secondary care community mental health setting: a service related study; 3) Validity of the Breath Counting Task as a behavioural measure of present moment awareness and meta-awareness.

  • Maria T P Y Chu

Student thesis: Doctoral ThesisDoctor of Clinical Psychology (DClinPsy)


Objectives The criterion, convergent and incremental validity of the Breath Counting Task (BCT) as measures of present moment awareness and metaawareness were examined. Method A retrospective analysis was conducted on data collected from a sample of 100 schoolteachers who attended a mindfulness training programme. Breath counting accuracy and meta-awareness, measured with the BCT, along with self-reported mindfulness, psychological distress and rumination were assessed before and after the mindfulness-based intervention (MBI). Metaawareness level was determined by the frequency of self-caught errors in relation to unaware errors on the BCT. Results Consistent with the previous validation studies, breath counting accuracy was positively correlated with self-reported mindfulness. Breath counting accuracy was also negatively associated with psychological distress and rumination. Meta-awareness was positively associated with breath counting accuracy and self-reported mindfulness, and negatively associated with psychological distress and rumination. Meta-awareness but not breath counting accuracy was shown to have incremental validity over self-reported mindfulness in predicting psychological distress following MBI. Conclusions This study provides additional evidence for the criterion and convergent validity of BCT as a measure of present moment awareness. This study also provides preliminary evidence for the convergent validity and incremental convergent validity of the BCT as a measure of meta-awareness.  
Date of Award15 Sept 2021
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • University of Bath
SupervisorPaul Chadwick (Supervisor), Jo Daniels (Supervisor), Elizabeth Marks (Supervisor) & Helena Blowers (Supervisor)


  • Mindfulness
  • mind-wandering
  • meta-awareness
  • self-caught
  • breath counting

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