Doctorate in Clinical Psychology: Main Research Portfolio
: 1) “I really felt the feeling”: A Systematic Review and Thematic Synthesis of Healthcare Workers’ Experiences of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Training ; 2) Improving the Assertive Outreach Referral Process: An Initial Clinical Audit in one Service in the South-West of England; 3) Measuring What Matters: Validating the Compassionate Care Actions Measure (CCAM).

  • Ellen Huish

Student thesis: Doctoral ThesisDoctor of Clinical Psychology (DClinPsy)


Objectives: The Compassionate Care Actions Measure (CCAM) is a new, brief and generalisable measure of the patient experience of compassionate care that was developed using a systematic process with patient involvement. It addresses a gap in existing measures by focusing on the observable compassionate actions of healthcare staff. The current study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the CCAM using two samples of the general healthcare population.

Design: A cross-sectional design was used to assess the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the CCAM.

Methods: Participants completed the CCAM and a range of other existing compassionate care, patient experience, depression and anxiety measures using an online questionnaire. Exploratory, Confirmatory, and Multi-Group Factor Analyses were used to assess factor structure and measurement invariance. Correlation analyses were conducted to assess reliability and validity.

Results: Study One (n = 311) suggested a six-item measure with a unidimensional structure, which was confirmed as an acceptable fit in Study Two (n = 342). Measurement invariance in relation to age and format of contact indicated the measure can be used comparatively. The measure demonstrated good internal reliability, test-retest reliability, convergent and divergent validity.

Conclusions: The CCAM is a brief, generalisable and accessible tool for evaluating the patient experience of compassionate care with strong psychometric properties. It can therefore be used to evaluate and improve care within healthcare services, as well as to further develop our understanding of the impact of compassionate care on other healthcare outcomes.
Date of Award10 Oct 2022
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • University of Bath
SupervisorElizabeth Marks (Supervisor), Lucy Maddox (Supervisor) & Anna Strudwick (Supervisor)

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