The protective effects of pharmacological inhibitors of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) have implicated XOR in many inflammatory diseases. Nonetheless, the role played by XOR during inflammation is poorly understood. We previously observed that inhibition of XOR within the inflammatory mononuclear phagocytes (MNP) prevented neutrophil recruitment during adoptive transfer demonstrating the role of XOR in MNP-mediated neutrophil recruitment. To further explore the role of XOR in the inflammatory state of MNP, we studied MNP isolated from inflammatory lungs combined with analyses of MNP cell lines. We demonstrated that XOR activity was increased in inflammatory MNP following insufflation of Th-1 cytokines in vivo and that activity was specifically increased by MNP differentiation. Inhibition of XOR reduced levels of CINC-1 secreted by MNP. Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) in purified rat lung MNP and MNP cell lines reflected both the presence of PPAR gamma isoforms and PPAR gamma SUMOylation, and XOR inhibitors increased levels of SUMO-PPAR gamma in MNP cell lines. Both ectopic overexpression of XOR cDNA and uric acid supplementation reduced SUMO-PPAR gamma in MNP cells. Levels of the M2 markers CD36, CD206, and arginase-1 were modulated by uric acid and oxonic acid, whereas siRNA to SUMO-1 or PIAS-1 also reduced arginase-1 in RAW264.7 cells. We also observed that HIF-1 alpha was increased by XOR inhibitors in inflammatory MNP and in MNP cell lines. These data demonstrate that XOR promotes the inflammatory state of MNP through effects on chemokine expression, PPAR gamma SUMOylation, and HIF-1 alpha and suggest that strategies for inhibiting XOR may be valuable in modulating lung inflammatory disorders.
Gibbings, S., Elkins, N. D., Fitzgerald, H., Tiao, J., Weyman, M. E., Shibao, G., Fini, M. A., & Wright, R. M. (2011). Xanthine oxidoreductase promotes the inflammatory state of mononuclear phagocytes through effects on chemokine expression, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma sumoylation, and HIF-1 alpha. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 286(2), 961-975. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M110.150847