WHOQOL Pain and Discomfort module: Development and validity testing of the Italian version

M.E Boero, A.L Melegari, P Vizzuso, V Braida, V Panetta, S M Skevington, V Mason

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: The World Health Organization Quality of Life scale Pain and Discomfort Module (WHOQOL PDM) was designed to assess quality of life (QoL) in adults with chronic pain. It comprises 16 items covering four facets of pain: relief, anger/frustration, vulnerability/fear/worry, and uncertainty.

Aim: The purpose of this study was to validate the Italian version of the WHOQOL PDM. Methods: Chronic pain was assessed in 400 patients using the WHOQOL PDM and other pain scales, together with scales measuring associated symptoms, depression, anxiety, and QoL.

Results: The WHOQOL PDM shows good internal consistency, concurrent validity (it was significantly associated with all the WHOQOL BREF domains), construct validity (it was signifcantly associated with other pain scales), and discriminant validity (there were signifcant differences among different groups of patients).

Conclusions: The Italian version of the WHOQOL PDM is a brief, useful, and valid tool for assessing chronic pain and its impact on patients' QoL.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)440-448
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Palliative Nursing
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2013


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