Whey Protein-Enriched and Carbohydrate-Rich Breakfasts Attenuate Insulinemic Responses to an ad libitum Lunch Relative to Extended Morning Fasting: A Randomized Crossover Trial

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Abstract

Background: Typical breakfast foods are rich in carbohydrate, so they not only elevate blood glucose during the morning, but also elicit a second-meal effect that can attenuate blood glucose responses in the afternoon. Objectives: To determine whether a reduced-carbohydrate protein-enriched breakfast can elicit similar effects on glucose control later in the day but without hyperglycemia in the morning. Methods: In a randomized crossover design, 12 healthy men and women (age 22 ± 2 y, BMI 24.1 ± 3.6 kg·m −2; Mean ± SD) completed 3 experimental conditions. In all conditions, participants consumed an ad libitum lunch at 1200 ± 1 h but differed in terms of whether they had fasted all morning (control) or had consumed a standardized porridge breakfast at 0900 ± 1 h (320 ± 50 kcal; prescribed relative to resting metabolic rate) that was either carbohydrate-rich (50 ± 10 g CHO) or protein-enriched (that is, isoenergetic substitution of carbohydrate for 15 g whey protein isolate). Results: The protein-enriched breakfast reduced the morning glycemic response (iAUC 87 ± 36 mmol·L −1·180 min) relative to the carbohydrate-rich breakfast (119 ± 37 mmol·L −1·180 min; P = 0.03). Despite similar energy intake at lunch in all 3 conditions (protein-enriched 769 ± 278 kcal; carbohydrate-rich 753 ± 223 kcal; fasting 790 ± 227 kcal), postlunch insulinemic responses were markedly attenuated when breakfasts had been consumed that were either protein-enriched (18.0 ± 8.0 nmol·L −1·120 min; P = 0.05) or carbohydrate-rich (16.0 ± 7.7 nmol·L −1·120 min; P = 0.005), relative to when lunch was consumed in an overnight fasted state (26.9 ± 13.5 nmol·L −1·120 min). Conclusions: Breakfast consumption attenuates insulinemic responses to a subsequent meal, achieved with consumption of energy-matched breakfasts typically high in carbohydrates or enriched with whey protein isolate relative to extended morning fasting. Trial registration number: NCT03866720 (clinicaltrials.gov).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2842-2853
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Nutrition
Volume153
Issue number10
Early online date7 Aug 2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 31 Oct 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank the volunteers for their participation in this research and also acknowledge the following individuals for assistance during data collection: Joel Thomas, Laura Heyworth, Zoe Cullum, Joanna Goodhead, James Hibbert, Marlon Josephs & Max Davis.

Funding Information:
JAB is an investigator on research grants funded by BBSRC, MRC, British Heart Foundation, Rare Disease Foundation, EU Hydration Institute, GlaxoSmithKline, Nestlé, Lucozade Ribena Suntory, ARLA foods, Kennis Centrum Suiker and Salus Optima (L3M Technologies Ltd); has completed paid consultancy for PepsiCo, Kellogg’s, SVGC and Salus Optima (L3M Technologies Ltd); is Company Director of Metabolic Solutions Ltd; receives an annual honorarium as a member of the academic advisory board for the International Olympic Committee Diploma in Sports Nutrition; and receives an annual stipend as Editor-in-Chief of International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism. JTG is an investigator on research grants funded by BBSRC, MRC, British Heart Foundation, Clasado Biosciences, Lucozade Ribena Suntory, ARLA Foods Ingredients and Knowledgecentre Sugar and Nutrition; and has completed paid consultancy for The Dairy Council, PepsiCo, Tour Racing Ltd., and SVGC. The remaining authors report no conflicts of interest.

Keywords

  • energy balance
  • metabolism
  • protein
  • sugar
  • thermogenesis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)

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