Wavelet analysis to decompose a vibration simulation signal to improve pre-distribution testing of packaging

K. R. Griffiths, B. J. Hicks, P. S. Keogh, D. Shires

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Citations (SciVal)


In general, vehicle vibration is non-stationary and has a non-Gaussian probability distribution; yet existing testing methods for packaging design employ Gaussian distributions to represent vibration induced by road profiles. This frequently results in over-testing and/or over-design of the packaging to meet a specification and correspondingly leads to wasteful packaging and product waste, which represent $15bn per year in the USA and €3bn per year in the EU. The purpose of the paper is to enable a measured non-stationary acceleration signal to be replaced by a constructed signal that includes as far as possible any non-stationary characteristics from the original signal. The constructed signal consists of a concatenation of decomposed shorter duration
signals, each having its own kurtosis level. Wavelet analysis is used for the
decomposition process into inner and outlier signal components. The constructed signal has a similar PSD to the original signal, without incurring excessive acceleration levels. This allows an improved and more representative simulated input signal to be generated that can be used on the current generation of shaker tables. The wavelet decomposition method is also demonstrated experimentally through two correlation studies. It is shown that significant improvements over current international standards for packaging testing are achievable; hence the potential for more efficient packaging system design is possible.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)780-795
Number of pages30
JournalMechanical Systems and Signal Processing
Early online date9 Feb 2016
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2016


  • wavelet analysis
  • wavelet transform
  • Vibrational spectra (DFT calcn. of


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