Watch-wearing as a marker of conscientiousness

David Ellis, Rob Jenkins

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (SciVal)


Several aspects of an individual’s appearance have been shown to predict personality and related behaviour. While some of these cues are grounded in biology (e.g., the human face), other aspects of a person’s appearance can be actively controlled (e.g., clothing). In this paper, we consider a common fashion accessory, the wristwatch. In an exploratory sample (N > 100) and a confirmatory sample (N > 600), we compared big-five personality traits between individuals who do or do not regularly wear a standard wristwatch. Significantly higher levels of conscientiousness were observed in participants who wore a watch. In a third study (N = 85), watch wearers arrived significantly earlier to appointments in comparison to controls. These results are discussed in relation to enclothed cognition and the rise of wearable technology including smartwatches.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 27 Aug 2015


  • time
  • appearance
  • personality
  • conscientiousness
  • punctuality


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