Currently, the diagnosis of many diseases relies on laboratory-based immunoassays (ELISA, Western Blot), which are laborious, time-consuming and expensive. To address these limitations, we report a wash-free and label-free electrochemical immunoassay for rapid measurements of protein biomarkers in blood samples. This immunosensor employs a unique detection scheme based on electrochemical-chemical (EC) redox cycling for signal amplification combined with an affinity-based protein quantification strategy. All of the reagents required for this assay are dried and stored on a stacked membrane assembly, consisting of a Vivid Plasma Separation membrane and two cellulose membranes situated above the sensor, enabling excellent stability at room temperature for up to 2 months. Proof of concept was carried out by performing measurements of Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) in whole blood samples, which could be detected from 100 ng/mL to 100 µg/mL with excellent specificity and reproducibility. Each measurement requires only two liquid dispensing steps and can completed in 5 min, making this diagnostic platform promising for point-of-care testing in resource-limited settings.
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