Virtual Reality Enhances EEG-Based Neurofeedback for Emotional Self-regulation

Pasquale Arpaia, Damien Coyle, Giovanni D'Errico, Egidio De Benedetto, Lucio Tommaso De Paolis, Naomi Du Bois, Sabrina Grassini, Giovanna Mastrati, Nicola Moccaldi, Ersilia Vallefuoco

Research output: Chapter or section in a book/report/conference proceedingChapter in a published conference proceeding

9 Citations (SciVal)


A pilot study to investigate possible differences between a virtual reality-based neurofeedback and a traditional neurofeedback is presented. Neurofeedback training aimed to strengthen the emotional regulation capacity. The neurofeedback task is to down-regulate negative emotions by decreasing the beta band power measured in the midline areas of the scalp (i.e., Fcz-Cpz). Negative International Affective Picture System images were chosen as eliciting stimuli. Three healthy subjects participated in the experimental activities. Each of them underwent three VR-based neurofeedback sessions and three neurofeedback sessions delivered on a traditional 2D screen. The neurofeedback training session was preceded by a calibration phase allowing to record the rest and the baseline values to adapt the neurofeedback system to the user. For the majority of sessions, the average value of the high beta band power during the neurofeedback training remained below the baseline, as expected. In compliance with previous studies, future works should investigate the virtual reality-based neurofeedback efficacy in physiological responses and behavioral performance.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationInternational Conference on Extended Reality
EditorsLucio Tommaso De Paolis, Pasquale Arpaia, Marco Sacco
Place of PublicationSwitzerland
PublisherSpringer Nature Switzerland AG
Number of pages12
ISBN (Print)978-3-031-15552-9
Publication statusPublished - 28 Aug 2022


  • brain computer interface
  • EEG
  • Extended Reality
  • Virtual Reality
  • Health 4.0
  • Emotion Regulation
  • Neurofeedback


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