Vacancy-type defects created by single-shot and chain ion implantation of silicon

Paul G Coleman, Charlene J Edwardson, A P Knights, R M Gwilliam

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Vacancy-type defects created by single-energy implantation of Czochralski-grown single-crystal silicon by 4MeV silicon ions at doses of 10 12 and 10 13 cm -2 have been compared with those created by an energy chain of implants of 0.4, 0.9, 1.5, 2.2 and 4MeV ions, each at one-fifth of the singleenergy dose. Measurements were taken for as-implanted samples and after annealing to temperatures up to 600 °C. In contrast to the expectation that a more uniform depth distribution of interstitials and vacancies would lead to a more efficient recombination and consequently fewer surviving vacancies, vacancyrelated damage survived in the chain-implanted samples to higher temperatures, before almost complete annealing at 600 °C. It is therefore concluded that it is the absolute initial monovacancy concentration, rather than any initial separation of vacancy-and interstitial-rich regions, that determines the probability of survival as divacancies, and that there exists a threshold divacancy concentration of 1-2 × 10 18 cm -3 for clustering at 400-500 °C.
Original languageEnglish
Article number025007
JournalNew Journal of Physics
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2012


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