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This work demonstrates the potential of porous BaTiO3 for piezoelectric sensor and energy-harvesting applications by manufacture of materials, detailed characterisation and application of new models. Ferroelectric macro-porous BaTiO3 ceramics for piezoelectric applications are manufactured for a range of relative densities, α = 0.30–0.95, using the burned out polymer spheres method. The piezoelectric activity and relevant parameters for specific applications are interpreted by developing two models: a model of a 3–0 composite and a ‘composite in composite’ model. The appropriate ranges of relative density for the application of these models to accurately predict piezoelectric properties are examined. The two models are extended to take into account the effect of 90° domain-wall mobility within ceramic grains on the piezoelectric coefficients d∗3j. It is shown that porous ferroelectrics provide a novel route to form materials with large piezoelectric anisotropy (d∗33/∣∣d∗31∣∣>>1) at 0.20 ≤ α ≤ 0.45 and achieve a high squared figure of merit d∗33g∗33. The modelling approach allows a detailed analysis of the relationships between the properties of the monolithic and porous materials for the design of porous structures with optimum properties.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)769-776
JournalScience and Technology of Advanced Materials
Issue number1
Early online date16 Nov 2016
Publication statusPublished - 2016


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