This paper examines the effect of saturated gases on H2O2 generation and dye degradation using graphitic-carbon nitride (g-C3N4) as a piezoelectric catalyst. A detailed catalytic evaluation was carried out using a double-bath sono-reactor, where the performance of g-C3N4 for H2O2 production and degradation of rhodamine B and indigo carmine dyes was evaluated for a range of catalyst dosage levels and saturated gases. Specific gases were selected to understand their role in the sonochemical production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and to elucidate the potential catalytic mechanism. The use of an Ar-O2 gas mixture led to the highest yield for H2O2 production and dye degradation due to the positive effect of argon and oxygen in the generation of H2O2 and reactive oxygen species, respectively. The presence of nitrogen in both air and in an Ar-air mixture increased H2O2 generation since reactive nitrogen species improved the conversion of •OH into H2O2. In contrast, air and Ar-air negatively influenced the generation of ROS, which resulted in a low rate of dye degradation. This work provides new insights of the mechanisms of sonochemical and piezocatalytic processes in the use of graphitic-carbon nitride in catalytic applications.
Original languageEnglish
JournalAdvanced Engineering Materials
Early online date2 Apr 2024
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2 Apr 2024

Data Availability Statement

The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.


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