Smart or controlled charging is widely seen as a potential solution to alleviate stress caused by mass uptake of electric vehicles on existing networks. While analyses with completely uncontrolled charging result in unrealistically amplified estimates of EV load, assuming a completely coordinated controlled charging also oversimplifies the estimates of impact due to mass EV uptake. Learning from the recent EV trials in the UK and elsewhere we take into account two key aspects which are largely ignored in current research: EVs actually charging at any given time and wide range of EV types, especially battery capacity-wise. Taking a minimalistic scenario-based approach, we study forecasting models for mean number of active chargers and mean EV consumption for distinct scenarios. Focusing on residential charging the models we consider range from simple regression models to more advanced machine and deep learning models such as XGBoost and LSTMs. We then use these models to evaluate the impacts of different levels of future EV penetration on a specimen distribution transformer that captures typical real-world scenarios. In doing so, we also initiate the study of different types of controlled charging when fully controlled charging is not possible. This aligns with the outcomes from recent trials which show that a sizeable proportion of EV owners may not prefer fully controlled centralized charging. We study two possible control regimes and show that one is more beneficial from load-on-transformer point of view, while the other may be preferred for other objectives. We show that a minimum of 60% control is required to ensure that transformers are not overloaded during peak hours.
|Title of host publication||e-Energy ’21: ACM International Conference on Future Energy Systems|
|Place of Publication||U. S. A.|
|Publisher||Association for Computing Machinery|
|Number of pages||2|
|Publication status||Published - 22 Jun 2021|