Unacylated ghrelin, leptin, and appetite display diurnal rhythmicity in lean adults

Iain Templeman, Harry A Smith, Jean-Philippe Walhin, Benita Middleton, Javier T Gonzalez, Leonidas G Karagounis, Jonathan D Johnston, James A Betts

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Constant routine and forced desynchrony protocols typically remove the effects of behavioral/environmental cues to examine endogenous circadian rhythms, yet this may not reflect rhythms of appetite regulation in the real world. It is therefore important to understand these rhythms within the same subjects under controlled diurnal conditions of light, sleep, and feeding. Ten healthy adults (9 M/1 F, means ±SD: Age, 30 ± 10 yr; body mass index, 24.1 ± 2.7 kgm2) rested supine in the laboratory for 37 h. All data were collected during the final 24 h of this period (i.e., 0800-0800 h). Participants were fed hourly isocaloric liquid meal replacements alongside appetite assessments during waking before a sleep opportunity from 2200 to 0700 h. Hourly blood samples were collected throughout the 24-h period. Dim light melatonin onset occurred at 2318 ± 46 min. A diurnal rhythm in mean plasma unacylated ghrelin concentration was identified (P = 0.04), with the acrophase occurring shortly after waking (0819), falling to a nadir in the evening with a relative amplitude of 9%. Plasma leptin concentration also exhibited a diurnal rhythm (P < 0.01), with the acrophase occurring shortly after lights-out (0032 h) and the lowest concentrations at midday. The amplitude for this rhythm was 25%. Diurnal rhythms were established in all dimensions of appetite except for sweet preference (P = 0.29), with both hunger (2103 h) and prospective food consumption (1955 h) reaching their peak in the evening before falling to their nadir shortly after waking. Under controlled diurnal conditions, simultaneous measurement of leptin, unacylated ghrelin, and subjective appetite over a 24-h period revealed rhythmicity in appetite regulation in lean, healthy humans

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1534-1543
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Applied Physiology
Volume130
Issue number5
Early online date11 Mar 2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 31 May 2021

Keywords

  • Appetite
  • Circadian rhythms
  • Diurnal
  • Ghrelin
  • Leptin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Unacylated ghrelin, leptin, and appetite display diurnal rhythmicity in lean adults'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this