An axial transmission technique has been used to investigate the changes in the first arrival time and signal amplitude of 200 kHz ultrasonic waves travelling across different fracture geometries. Results taken from intact bovine femora were compared with those produced when a transverse and an oblique fracture were simulated. The arrival time and signal amplitude displayed a different variation with receiver position for the two geometries and a given fracture gap width. A comparison between this work and a previous study suggested that the marrow does not play a significant role in the mechanisms causing the change in arrival time and signal amplitude. Numerical modelling revealed that an oblique fracture caused a reduction in the extra time delay of the propagating wave compared with the transverse case, but a decrease in the corresponding signal amplitude, i.e., greater signal loss. The angle of the oblique fracture was investigated and results suggested that decreasing the fracture angle relative to the wave propagation direction caused a decrease in the extra time delay and an increase in signal loss. These findings are important for determining the sensitivity of systems for monitoring fracture healing using ultrasound arrival time and signal amplitude.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology|
|Publication status||Published - Mar 2008|