The cooperative binding of two boronic acid moieties has been utilized to create a two dimensional fluorescence sensor for saccharides. The photoinduced electron transfer switching mechanism has been used to provide information of saccharide concentration while the excimer emission changes of the pyrene moieties provide the nature of the complex.
Sandanayake, K. R. A. S., James, T. D., & Shinkai, S. (1995). Two dimensional photoinduced electron transfer(PET) fluorescence sensor for saccharides. Chemistry Letters, 7, 503-504. https://doi.org/10.1246/cl.1995.503