Transient response of ARROW VCSELs

C. W. Tee, S. F. Yu, R. V. Penty, I. H. White

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (SciVal)


The transient response of antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide (ARROW) vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) is analyzed. It is found that under current modulation, the radiation loss of the transverse-leaky mode decreases during the 〈ON〉 state of the lasers but increases during the 〈OFF〉 state. Numerical analysis shows that this variation in radiation loss is due to the carrier-induced refractive-index depression that arises from spatial-hole-burning of carrier concentration. It is noted that the increment in radiation loss during the 〈OFF〉 state can be used to prevent net modal gain of the transverse-leaky mode from reacquiring threshold after turn-off. Hence, a new method to design ARROW, based on the variation in radiation loss, is proposed to eliminate the excitation of secondary pulsation in VCSELs. The influence of thermal lensing effects on the excitation of secondary pulsation during the 〈 OFF〉 state of the lasers is also investigated.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)140-147
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2005


  • Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide (ARROW)
  • Radiation loss
  • Secondary pulsation
  • Semiconductor laser modeling
  • Spatial hole burning
  • Turn-off transients
  • Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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