Transcriptional coupling of neighboring genes and gene expression noise: evidence that gene orientation and noncoding transcripts are modulators of noise

Guang Z Wang, M J Lercher, Laurence D Hurst

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Abstract

How is noise in gene expression modulated? Do mechanisms of noise control impact genome organization? In yeast, the expression of one gene can affect that of a very close neighbor. As the effect is highly regionalized, we hypothesize that genes in different orientations will have differing degrees of coupled expression and, in turn, different noise levels. Divergently organized gene pairs, in particular those with bidirectional promoters, have close promoters, maximizing the likelihood that expression of one gene affects the neighbor. With more distant promoters, the same is less likely to hold for gene pairs in nondivergent orientation. Stochastic models suggest that coupled chromatin dynamics will typically result in low abundance-corrected noise (ACN). Transcription of noncoding RNA (ncRNA) from a bidirectional promoter, we thus hypothesize to be a noise-reduction, expression-priming, mechanism. The hypothesis correctly predicts that protein-coding genes with a bidirectional promoter, including those with a ncRNA partner, have lower ACN than other genes and divergent gene pairs uniquely have correlated ACN. Moreover, as predicted, ACN increases with the distance between promoters. The model also correctly predicts ncRNA transcripts to be often divergently transcribed from genes that a priori would be under selection for low noise (essential genes, protein complex genes) and that the latter genes should commonly reside in divergent orientation. Likewise, that genes with bidirectional promoters are rare subtelomerically, cluster together, and are enriched in essential gene clusters is expected and observed. We conclude that gene orientation and transcription of ncRNAs are candidate modulators of noise.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)320-331
Number of pages12
JournalGenome biology and evolution
Volume3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011

Fingerprint

gene expression
Noise
Gene Expression
gene
Genes
promoter regions
genes
Untranslated RNA
Essential Genes
RNA
transcription (genetics)
Multigene Family
Chromatin
Proteins
protein
messenger RNA
Yeasts
multigene family
Genome
chromatin

Keywords

  • chromatin remodeling
  • bidirectional promoter
  • expression noise
  • chromatin
  • coding transcripts
  • non

Cite this

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abstract = "How is noise in gene expression modulated? Do mechanisms of noise control impact genome organization? In yeast, the expression of one gene can affect that of a very close neighbor. As the effect is highly regionalized, we hypothesize that genes in different orientations will have differing degrees of coupled expression and, in turn, different noise levels. Divergently organized gene pairs, in particular those with bidirectional promoters, have close promoters, maximizing the likelihood that expression of one gene affects the neighbor. With more distant promoters, the same is less likely to hold for gene pairs in nondivergent orientation. Stochastic models suggest that coupled chromatin dynamics will typically result in low abundance-corrected noise (ACN). Transcription of noncoding RNA (ncRNA) from a bidirectional promoter, we thus hypothesize to be a noise-reduction, expression-priming, mechanism. The hypothesis correctly predicts that protein-coding genes with a bidirectional promoter, including those with a ncRNA partner, have lower ACN than other genes and divergent gene pairs uniquely have correlated ACN. Moreover, as predicted, ACN increases with the distance between promoters. The model also correctly predicts ncRNA transcripts to be often divergently transcribed from genes that a priori would be under selection for low noise (essential genes, protein complex genes) and that the latter genes should commonly reside in divergent orientation. Likewise, that genes with bidirectional promoters are rare subtelomerically, cluster together, and are enriched in essential gene clusters is expected and observed. We conclude that gene orientation and transcription of ncRNAs are candidate modulators of noise.",
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AU - Wang, Guang Z

AU - Lercher, M J

AU - Hurst, Laurence D

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N2 - How is noise in gene expression modulated? Do mechanisms of noise control impact genome organization? In yeast, the expression of one gene can affect that of a very close neighbor. As the effect is highly regionalized, we hypothesize that genes in different orientations will have differing degrees of coupled expression and, in turn, different noise levels. Divergently organized gene pairs, in particular those with bidirectional promoters, have close promoters, maximizing the likelihood that expression of one gene affects the neighbor. With more distant promoters, the same is less likely to hold for gene pairs in nondivergent orientation. Stochastic models suggest that coupled chromatin dynamics will typically result in low abundance-corrected noise (ACN). Transcription of noncoding RNA (ncRNA) from a bidirectional promoter, we thus hypothesize to be a noise-reduction, expression-priming, mechanism. The hypothesis correctly predicts that protein-coding genes with a bidirectional promoter, including those with a ncRNA partner, have lower ACN than other genes and divergent gene pairs uniquely have correlated ACN. Moreover, as predicted, ACN increases with the distance between promoters. The model also correctly predicts ncRNA transcripts to be often divergently transcribed from genes that a priori would be under selection for low noise (essential genes, protein complex genes) and that the latter genes should commonly reside in divergent orientation. Likewise, that genes with bidirectional promoters are rare subtelomerically, cluster together, and are enriched in essential gene clusters is expected and observed. We conclude that gene orientation and transcription of ncRNAs are candidate modulators of noise.

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