Trait anxiety in young athletes as a function of parental pressure and motivational climate: Is parental pressure always harmful?

D J O'Rourke, R E Smith, F L Smoll, Sean P Cumming

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

42 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We assessed the role of parental behaviors on sport performance anxiety. Measures of trait anxiety, parental pressure, and parent-initiated motivational climate were administered to youth swimmers throughout the season. High parental pressure within either a low mastery or a high ego motivational climate was associated with the highest levels of anxiety at all time points. An early-season, high-pressure/low-mastery combination was also associated with relative increases in anxiety over the season, whereas high pressure within a high mastery climate was associated with relative decreases. Results indicate that parental pressure can have differential effects depending upon motivational climate.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)398-412
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Applied Sport Psychology
Volume23
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011

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