This article provides an overview of the principal earthen building materials of Central Asia and the cultural aspects of a traditional architecture that incorporates an understanding daring back centuries. The work was started by focusing on sets of research questions, which also helped to structure the study: What are the manufacturing processes of materials in the area? Based on the analysis of materials, what suggestions can be made for a more appropriate conservation of the Central Asian built heritage? There is at present a large lacuna in the literature on Central Asian materials. The traditional processes of production and the traditional methods for repairing require proper documentation. The author interviewed several craftsmen to collect data on the traditional process of manufacturing earthen materials. The aim of interviewing local craftsmen through semi-structured interviews was to increase the scant information about the local, traditional techniques of construction and the materials employed.