TiO2 photoanodes with exposed {0 1 0} facets grown by aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition of a titanium oxo/alkoxy cluster

Miriam Regue Grino, Sandra Sibby, Ibbi Ahmet, Dennis Friedrich, Fatwa F. Abdi, Andrew Johnson, Salvador Eslava Fernandez

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17 Citations (SciVal)


Photoelectrochemical water splitting is a promising technology for the development of solar fuels. Titanium dioxide (TiO 2) is one of the most studied metal oxides in this field as a photoanode. Achieving its full potential requires controlling its morphology and crystallinity and especially the exposure of its most active crystal facets. Herein, we present the formation of nanostructured TiO 2 photoanodes with anatase phase and high exposure of the {0 1 0} facet, the most active TiO 2 phase and facet. TiO 2 photoanodes were prepared from a Ti 7O 4(OEt) 20 titanium oxo/alkoxy cluster solution using aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition. Characterization techniques such as SEM and TEM reveal that these TiO 2 photoanodes consist of morphologies resembling the crystals of gypsum, sand and water found in nature, also known as desert roses. Furthermore, TEM and XRD analysis also reveals that the metastable anatase TiO 2 phase is maintained up to 1000 °C and exceeds the typical anatase-to-rutile phase-transition temperature of 500-750 °C, a feature that could be exploited in the smart ceramics industry. Photoelectrochemical measurements show that these desert-rose TiO 2 photoanodes achieve excellent photocurrent densities with an incident photon-to-current efficiency of ∼100% at 350 nm and a faradaic efficiency for oxygen evolution of ∼90%.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)19161-19172
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Materials Chemistry A
Issue number32
Early online date29 Jul 2019
Publication statusPublished - 28 Aug 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors would like to acknowledge both EPSRC for funding the Centre for Doctoral Training in Sustainable Chemical Technologies at the University of Bath (EP/L016354/1) and the Material and Chemical Characterisation facility (MC2) at the University of Bath. SE would like to acknowledge the nancial support from EPSRC (EP/P008097/1).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Materials Science(all)


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