Tin(II) Ureide Complexes: Synthesis, Structural Chemistry and Evaluation as SnO precursors

Thomas Wildsmith, James D. Parish, Ibbi Y. Ahmet, Kieran C. Molloy, Michael S. Hill, Andrew L. Johnson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

In an attempt to tailor precursors for application in the deposition of phase pure SnO, we have evaluated a series of tin (1-6) ureide complexes. The complexes were successfully synthesized by employing N,N′-Trialkyl-functionalized ureide ligands, in which features such as stability, volatility, and decomposition could be modified with variation of the substituents on the ureide ligand in an attempt to find the complex with the ideal electronic, steric, or coordinative properties, which determine the fate of the final products. The tin(II) ureide complexes 1-6 were synthesized by direct reaction [Sn{NMe2}2] with aryl and alkyl isocyanates in a 1:2 molar ratio. All the complexes were characterized by NMR spectroscopy as well as elemental analysis and, where applicable, thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. The single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies of 2, 3, 4, and 6 revealed that the complexes crystallize in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/n (2 and 4) or in the triclinic space group P-1 (3 and 6) as monomers. Reaction with phenyl isocyanate results in the formation of the bimetallic species 5, which crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1, a consequence of incomplete insertion into the Sn-NMe2 bonds, versus mesityl isocyanate, which produces a monomeric double insertion product, 6, under the same conditions, indicating a difference in reactivity between phenyl isocyanate and mesityl isocyanate with respect to insertion into Sn-NMe2 bonds. The metal centers in these complexes are all four-coordinate, displaying either distorted trigonal bipyramidal or trigonal bipyramidal geometries. The steric influence of the imido-ligand substituent has a clear effect on the coordination mode of the ureide ligands, with complexes 2 and 6, which contain the cyclohexyl and mesityl ligands, displaying κ2-O,N coordination modes, whereas κ2-N,N′ coordination modes are observed for the sterically bulkier tert-butyl and adamantyl derivatives, 3 and 4. The thermogravimetric analysis of the complexes 3 and 4 exhibited excellent physicochemical properties with clean single-step curves and low residual masses in their TG analyses suggesting their potential utility of these systems as MOCVD and ALD precursors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)17083-17093
Number of pages11
JournalInorganic Chemistry
Volume60
Issue number22
Early online date27 Oct 2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Nov 2021

Keywords

  • Tin(II)
  • Ureide
  • SnO
  • Precursor
  • AACVD

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry

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