Tin Guanidinato Complexes: Oxidative Control of Sn, SnS, SnSe and SnTe Thin Film Deposition

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Abstract

A family of tin(II) guanidinate complexes of the general form [{RNC(NMe2)NR}2Sn] (R = iPr (6), Cy (7), Tol (9) and Dipp (10)) and [{tBuNC(NMe2)NtBu}Sn{NMe2}] (8) have been synthesised and isolated from the reaction of tin(II) bis-dimethylamide and a series of carbodiimides (1-5). The cyclic poly-chalcogenide compounds [{CyNC(NMe2)NCy}2Sn{Chx}] (Ch = S, x = 4 (11); Ch = Se, x = 4 (12), and Ch = S, x = 6 (13)) with {SnChx} rings were prepared by the oxidative addition of elemental sulfur and selenium, to the heteroleptic stannylene complex [{CyNC(NMe2)NCy}2Sn] (7) in THF at room temperature. Similarly, reaction of compounds 6 and 7 with an equimolar amount of the chalcogen transfer reagents (SC3H6 and Se=PEt3 respectively) led to the formation of the chalcogenide tin(IV) complexes [{RNC(NMe2)NR}Sn(Ch)] (R = Cy: Ch = S (14); R = iPr, Ch = Se (15); R = Cy, Ch = Se (16)) with terminal Sn=Ch (14 and 16) and dimeric bridged seleno-tin {Sn2Se2} rings (15), respectively. The mono telluro-compounds [{RNC(NMe2)NR}Sn(Te)] (R = iPr (17); R = Cy (18)) were similarly prepared by the oxidative addition of elemental tellurium to 7 and 8 respectively. All the tin containing compounds have been investigated by multinuclear NMR (1H, 13C 119Sn and 77Se /125Te, where possible), elemental analysis and single crystal X-ray structural analysis (7, 8, 10-13, 15-18). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to probe the possible utility of complexes 6-8, 11-12 and 14-18 as single source Sn and SnCh precursors. The Sn(II) compounds 6 and 7 have been utilised in the growth of thin films by aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD) at both 300 and 400 °C. The thin films have been analysed by pXRD, EDS, SEM and AFM and shown to be Sn metal. Subsequent studies provided film growth at temperatures as low as 200 °C. Similarly, the mono-chalcogenide systems 14, 16 and 18 have been utilised in the AACVD of thin films. These latter studies provided films, grown at 300 and 400 °C, which have also been analysed by pXRD, Raman spectroscopy, XPS, AFM, and SEM and are shown to comprise of phase pure SnS, SnSe and SnTe, respectively. These preliminary results demonstrate the potential of such simple guanidinate complexes to act as single source precursors with a high degree of oxidative control over the deposited thin films.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5031-5048
Number of pages19
JournalDalton Transactions
Volume47
Issue number14
Early online date7 Mar 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 14 Apr 2018

Fingerprint

Tin
Thin films
Aerosols
Chemical vapor deposition
Chalcogens
Tellurium
Carbodiimides
Scanning electron microscopy
Film growth
Selenium
Sulfur
Structural analysis
Raman spectroscopy
Thermogravimetric analysis
Energy dispersive spectroscopy
X ray photoelectron spectroscopy
Metals
Nuclear magnetic resonance
Single crystals
X rays

Keywords

  • SnS
  • SnSe
  • SnTe
  • AACVD
  • guanidinate
  • chalcogens
  • Thin film
  • Precurcors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)

Cite this

Tin Guanidinato Complexes: Oxidative Control of Sn, SnS, SnSe and SnTe Thin Film Deposition. / Ahmet, Ibrahim Y.; Hill, Michael S.; Raithby, Paul R,; Johnson, Andrew L.

In: Dalton Transactions , Vol. 47, No. 14, 14.04.2018, p. 5031-5048 .

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "A family of tin(II) guanidinate complexes of the general form [{RNC(NMe2)NR}2Sn] (R = iPr (6), Cy (7), Tol (9) and Dipp (10)) and [{tBuNC(NMe2)NtBu}Sn{NMe2}] (8) have been synthesised and isolated from the reaction of tin(II) bis-dimethylamide and a series of carbodiimides (1-5). The cyclic poly-chalcogenide compounds [{CyNC(NMe2)NCy}2Sn{Chx}] (Ch = S, x = 4 (11); Ch = Se, x = 4 (12), and Ch = S, x = 6 (13)) with {SnChx} rings were prepared by the oxidative addition of elemental sulfur and selenium, to the heteroleptic stannylene complex [{CyNC(NMe2)NCy}2Sn] (7) in THF at room temperature. Similarly, reaction of compounds 6 and 7 with an equimolar amount of the chalcogen transfer reagents (SC3H6 and Se=PEt3 respectively) led to the formation of the chalcogenide tin(IV) complexes [{RNC(NMe2)NR}Sn(Ch)] (R = Cy: Ch = S (14); R = iPr, Ch = Se (15); R = Cy, Ch = Se (16)) with terminal Sn=Ch (14 and 16) and dimeric bridged seleno-tin {Sn2Se2} rings (15), respectively. The mono telluro-compounds [{RNC(NMe2)NR}Sn(Te)] (R = iPr (17); R = Cy (18)) were similarly prepared by the oxidative addition of elemental tellurium to 7 and 8 respectively. All the tin containing compounds have been investigated by multinuclear NMR (1H, 13C 119Sn and 77Se /125Te, where possible), elemental analysis and single crystal X-ray structural analysis (7, 8, 10-13, 15-18). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to probe the possible utility of complexes 6-8, 11-12 and 14-18 as single source Sn and SnCh precursors. The Sn(II) compounds 6 and 7 have been utilised in the growth of thin films by aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD) at both 300 and 400 °C. The thin films have been analysed by pXRD, EDS, SEM and AFM and shown to be Sn metal. Subsequent studies provided film growth at temperatures as low as 200 °C. Similarly, the mono-chalcogenide systems 14, 16 and 18 have been utilised in the AACVD of thin films. These latter studies provided films, grown at 300 and 400 °C, which have also been analysed by pXRD, Raman spectroscopy, XPS, AFM, and SEM and are shown to comprise of phase pure SnS, SnSe and SnTe, respectively. These preliminary results demonstrate the potential of such simple guanidinate complexes to act as single source precursors with a high degree of oxidative control over the deposited thin films.",
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T1 - Tin Guanidinato Complexes: Oxidative Control of Sn, SnS, SnSe and SnTe Thin Film Deposition

AU - Ahmet, Ibrahim Y.

AU - Hill, Michael S.

AU - Raithby, Paul R,

AU - Johnson, Andrew L.

PY - 2018/4/14

Y1 - 2018/4/14

N2 - A family of tin(II) guanidinate complexes of the general form [{RNC(NMe2)NR}2Sn] (R = iPr (6), Cy (7), Tol (9) and Dipp (10)) and [{tBuNC(NMe2)NtBu}Sn{NMe2}] (8) have been synthesised and isolated from the reaction of tin(II) bis-dimethylamide and a series of carbodiimides (1-5). The cyclic poly-chalcogenide compounds [{CyNC(NMe2)NCy}2Sn{Chx}] (Ch = S, x = 4 (11); Ch = Se, x = 4 (12), and Ch = S, x = 6 (13)) with {SnChx} rings were prepared by the oxidative addition of elemental sulfur and selenium, to the heteroleptic stannylene complex [{CyNC(NMe2)NCy}2Sn] (7) in THF at room temperature. Similarly, reaction of compounds 6 and 7 with an equimolar amount of the chalcogen transfer reagents (SC3H6 and Se=PEt3 respectively) led to the formation of the chalcogenide tin(IV) complexes [{RNC(NMe2)NR}Sn(Ch)] (R = Cy: Ch = S (14); R = iPr, Ch = Se (15); R = Cy, Ch = Se (16)) with terminal Sn=Ch (14 and 16) and dimeric bridged seleno-tin {Sn2Se2} rings (15), respectively. The mono telluro-compounds [{RNC(NMe2)NR}Sn(Te)] (R = iPr (17); R = Cy (18)) were similarly prepared by the oxidative addition of elemental tellurium to 7 and 8 respectively. All the tin containing compounds have been investigated by multinuclear NMR (1H, 13C 119Sn and 77Se /125Te, where possible), elemental analysis and single crystal X-ray structural analysis (7, 8, 10-13, 15-18). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to probe the possible utility of complexes 6-8, 11-12 and 14-18 as single source Sn and SnCh precursors. The Sn(II) compounds 6 and 7 have been utilised in the growth of thin films by aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD) at both 300 and 400 °C. The thin films have been analysed by pXRD, EDS, SEM and AFM and shown to be Sn metal. Subsequent studies provided film growth at temperatures as low as 200 °C. Similarly, the mono-chalcogenide systems 14, 16 and 18 have been utilised in the AACVD of thin films. These latter studies provided films, grown at 300 and 400 °C, which have also been analysed by pXRD, Raman spectroscopy, XPS, AFM, and SEM and are shown to comprise of phase pure SnS, SnSe and SnTe, respectively. These preliminary results demonstrate the potential of such simple guanidinate complexes to act as single source precursors with a high degree of oxidative control over the deposited thin films.

AB - A family of tin(II) guanidinate complexes of the general form [{RNC(NMe2)NR}2Sn] (R = iPr (6), Cy (7), Tol (9) and Dipp (10)) and [{tBuNC(NMe2)NtBu}Sn{NMe2}] (8) have been synthesised and isolated from the reaction of tin(II) bis-dimethylamide and a series of carbodiimides (1-5). The cyclic poly-chalcogenide compounds [{CyNC(NMe2)NCy}2Sn{Chx}] (Ch = S, x = 4 (11); Ch = Se, x = 4 (12), and Ch = S, x = 6 (13)) with {SnChx} rings were prepared by the oxidative addition of elemental sulfur and selenium, to the heteroleptic stannylene complex [{CyNC(NMe2)NCy}2Sn] (7) in THF at room temperature. Similarly, reaction of compounds 6 and 7 with an equimolar amount of the chalcogen transfer reagents (SC3H6 and Se=PEt3 respectively) led to the formation of the chalcogenide tin(IV) complexes [{RNC(NMe2)NR}Sn(Ch)] (R = Cy: Ch = S (14); R = iPr, Ch = Se (15); R = Cy, Ch = Se (16)) with terminal Sn=Ch (14 and 16) and dimeric bridged seleno-tin {Sn2Se2} rings (15), respectively. The mono telluro-compounds [{RNC(NMe2)NR}Sn(Te)] (R = iPr (17); R = Cy (18)) were similarly prepared by the oxidative addition of elemental tellurium to 7 and 8 respectively. All the tin containing compounds have been investigated by multinuclear NMR (1H, 13C 119Sn and 77Se /125Te, where possible), elemental analysis and single crystal X-ray structural analysis (7, 8, 10-13, 15-18). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to probe the possible utility of complexes 6-8, 11-12 and 14-18 as single source Sn and SnCh precursors. The Sn(II) compounds 6 and 7 have been utilised in the growth of thin films by aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD) at both 300 and 400 °C. The thin films have been analysed by pXRD, EDS, SEM and AFM and shown to be Sn metal. Subsequent studies provided film growth at temperatures as low as 200 °C. Similarly, the mono-chalcogenide systems 14, 16 and 18 have been utilised in the AACVD of thin films. These latter studies provided films, grown at 300 and 400 °C, which have also been analysed by pXRD, Raman spectroscopy, XPS, AFM, and SEM and are shown to comprise of phase pure SnS, SnSe and SnTe, respectively. These preliminary results demonstrate the potential of such simple guanidinate complexes to act as single source precursors with a high degree of oxidative control over the deposited thin films.

KW - SnS

KW - SnSe

KW - SnTe

KW - AACVD

KW - guanidinate

KW - chalcogens

KW - Thin film

KW - Precurcors

U2 - 10.1039/C8DT00773J

DO - 10.1039/C8DT00773J

M3 - Article

VL - 47

SP - 5031

EP - 5048

JO - Dalton Transactions

JF - Dalton Transactions

SN - 1477-9226

IS - 14

ER -