Three Dimensional Analysis of Facial Movement in Normal Adults: Influence of Sex and Facial Shape

Josephine Clark Weeden, Carroll Ann Trotman, Julian J. Faraway

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100 Citations (SciVal)


The aim of this study was to quantify facial movements in a sample of normal adults and to investigate the influence of sex and facial shape on these movements. The study sample consisted of 50 healthy adult subjects, 25 males and 25 females (age: mean = 27.3 years; range = 23-39 years). A video-based tracking system was used to track small-diameter retroreflective markers positioned at specific facial sites. Subjects were instructed to make 7 maximum facial animations from rest, and the facial movements for each animation were characterized as the vectors of maximum displacement. Hotelling's T 2 was used to test for significant sex differences in facial movements. In order to determine the effects of facial shape on facial movements, an index of facial shape was first calculated for each subject, and then a mixed-model ANOVA was used with facial shape (index), sex, and the interaction between facial shape and sex as fixed effects and subject as a random effect. The results demonstrated specific movement patterns for each animation. In general, males had larger movements than females and facial shape had a small but significant effect on facial movements. By comparing patient movements with the data from this large normative sample, the utility of this method to assess region-specific movement deficits was demonstrated.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)132-140
Number of pages9
JournalAngle Orthodontist
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2001


  • Facial movement
  • Facial shape
  • Sex difference
  • Three-dimension

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthodontics


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