Thermal environment perceptions considering length of stay for cardiovascular inpatients in hospitals: a statistical approach

Badr Alotaibi, Stephen Lo (Editor)

Research output: Chapter or section in a book/report/conference proceedingChapter in a published conference proceeding

2 Citations (SciVal)


Cardiovascular patients are one of the highest population groups affected by elevated external temperatures. Many research studies highlight the impact of three main indicators: mortality rates, morbidity, and admissions to hospitals. Most research determined that cardiovascular patients were among the top admissions to hospitals. The external temperature needs to be evaluated while the patients are hospitalised to reveal the extent of its impact. This study also seeks to evaluate the impact of the length of stay periods on the perceived thermal environment of cardiovascular inpatients when the external temperatures are elevated particularly in summer periods. To do so, longitudinal data analysis of indoor air temperatures, relative humidity and outdoor air temperatures linked with recorded patients' responses, was undertaken for three months in cardiology and cardiac surgery wards in a hospital in Saudi Arabia, i.e. a hot, arid dessert climate (BWh) based on the Köppen Geiger climate zones map. Patient questionnaires were administrated during the daytime, specifically the afternoon hours to obtain the best results when outdoor temperatures exceeded 40°C. The gathered data was analysed using several statistical tests for correlations and differences to validate the results. The patients who were hospitalised for more than one week and one month felt more neutral compared to other shorter periods of stay; this was interpreted as patients having sufficient time acclimatise to their environment.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMaterials Science and Engineering
Subtitle of host publication4. IAQ and Indoor Environmental Quality
PublisherIOP Publishing
Number of pages7
Publication statusPublished - 23 Oct 2019

Publication series

NameIOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering
ISSN (Print)1757-8981

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • General Engineering


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