The Use of Sonotrodes for Electroanalysis: Sono-ASV Detection of Lead in Aqueous Solution

Richard P. Akkermans, Jon C. Ball, Frank Marken, Richard G. Compton

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28 Citations (SciVal)


Sonotrodes were made by implanting a working electrode into the tip of an ultrasonic horn. These were investigated for the use in ultrasound assisted anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) of Pb2+ and Cu2+ in aqueous solutions to which Hg2+ was added to permit the formation of lead/ copper amalgam in a plating step. Insonation not only allows this preconcentration step to take place under conditions of unusually high mass transport but also causes enrichment of the trace metals in the form of intermetallic compounds leading to sharp stripping responses. The effect of increasing insonation time on the oxidation peak sizes, shapes and positions was studied. Comparison was made with the voltammetry of Pb2+ and Cu2+ observed at platinum electrodes in the absence of Hg2+ where broad signals for both were seen. The nature of the deposition of mercury on platinum electrodes was studied by both voltammetry and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The growth of mercury droplets with time under 'silent' plating conditions was seen. In anodic stripping experiments using platinum sonotrodes the ratio of Hg2+ to Pb2+ in the codeposition was examined along with the total amount of charge deposited for a range of Pb2+ concentrations. Sharp anodic stripping responses were obtained down to a Pb2+ concentration level of 2 μgL-1 making sono-ASV a potentially valuable technique for the detection of Pb2+ in solution. In contrast glassy carbon sonotrodes were found to be unsatisfactory since the adhesion of mercury under insonation was poor.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)26-32
Number of pages7
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1998


  • Anodic stripping voltammetry
  • Lead
  • Sonoelectrochemistry
  • Sonovoltammetry
  • Ultrasound

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Electrochemistry


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