The Technology Integration Model (TIM): Predicting the continued use of technology

Heather Shaw, David Alexander Ellis, Fenja Ziegler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

54 Citations (SciVal)


The human-computer relationship is often convoluted and despite decades of progress, many relationships relating to continued use are unclear and poorly defined. This may be due to a lack of interdisciplinary collaboration, especially from a theoretical standpoint between computer science and psychology. Following a review of existing theories that attempt to explain continued technology use, we developed the Technology Integration Model (TIM). In sum, the main objective of TIM is to outline the processes behind continued technology use in an individual's everyday life. Here we present the model alongside a description of its scope and the relationships between constructs. This can help generate research questions relating to technology use while simultaneously addressing many previous shortcomings of existing models. As a unifying theory, TIM can quickly be adopted by researchers and developers when designing and implementing new technologies.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)204-214
Number of pages11
JournalComputers in Human Behavior
Early online date10 Feb 2018
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2018


  • Technology use
  • Continued technology use
  • Extended self
  • Technology integration model


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