The Role of Intermittent Fasting and Meal Timing in Weight Management and Metabolic Health: Intermittent Fasting & Health

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Abstract

Obesity remains a major public health concern and intermittent fasting is a popular strategy for weight-loss, which may present independent health benefits. However, the number of diet books advising how fasting can be incorporated into our daily lives is several orders of magnitude greater than the number of trials examining whether fasting should be encouraged at all. This review will consider the state of current understanding regarding various forms of intermittent fasting (e.g. 5:2, time-restricted feeding and alternate-day fasting). The efficacy of these temporally defined approaches appears broadly equivalent to that of standard daily calorie restriction, although many of these models of intermittent fasting do not involve fed-fasted cycles every other 24-h sleep-wake cycle and/or permit some limited energy intake outside of prescribed feeding times. Accordingly, the intervention period therefore may not regularly alternate, may not span all or even most of any given day, and may not even involve absolute fasting. This is important because potentially advantageous physiological mechanisms may only be initiated if a post-absorptive state is sustained by uninterrupted fasting for a more prolonged duration than applied in many trials. Indeed, promising effects on fat mass and insulin sensitivity have been reported when fasting duration is routinely extended beyond 16 consecutive hours. Further progress will require such models to be tested with appropriate controls to isolate whether any possible health effects of intermittent fasting are primarily attributable to regularly protracted post-absorptive periods, or simply to the net negative energy balance indirectly elicited by any form of dietary restriction.
LanguageEnglish
JournalProceedings of the Nutrition Society
StatusAccepted/In press - 26 Mar 2019

Keywords

  • Eating Pattern, Circadian Rhythms, Time Restricted Feeding, Weight Loss

Cite this

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title = "The Role of Intermittent Fasting and Meal Timing in Weight Management and Metabolic Health: Intermittent Fasting & Health",
abstract = "Obesity remains a major public health concern and intermittent fasting is a popular strategy for weight-loss, which may present independent health benefits. However, the number of diet books advising how fasting can be incorporated into our daily lives is several orders of magnitude greater than the number of trials examining whether fasting should be encouraged at all. This review will consider the state of current understanding regarding various forms of intermittent fasting (e.g. 5:2, time-restricted feeding and alternate-day fasting). The efficacy of these temporally defined approaches appears broadly equivalent to that of standard daily calorie restriction, although many of these models of intermittent fasting do not involve fed-fasted cycles every other 24-h sleep-wake cycle and/or permit some limited energy intake outside of prescribed feeding times. Accordingly, the intervention period therefore may not regularly alternate, may not span all or even most of any given day, and may not even involve absolute fasting. This is important because potentially advantageous physiological mechanisms may only be initiated if a post-absorptive state is sustained by uninterrupted fasting for a more prolonged duration than applied in many trials. Indeed, promising effects on fat mass and insulin sensitivity have been reported when fasting duration is routinely extended beyond 16 consecutive hours. Further progress will require such models to be tested with appropriate controls to isolate whether any possible health effects of intermittent fasting are primarily attributable to regularly protracted post-absorptive periods, or simply to the net negative energy balance indirectly elicited by any form of dietary restriction.",
keywords = "Eating Pattern, Circadian Rhythms, Time Restricted Feeding, Weight Loss",
author = "Iain Templeman and Javier Gonzalez and Dylan Thompson and James Betts",
year = "2019",
month = "3",
day = "26",
language = "English",
journal = "Proceedings of the Nutrition Society",
issn = "0029-6651",
publisher = "Cambridge University Press",

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T1 - The Role of Intermittent Fasting and Meal Timing in Weight Management and Metabolic Health

T2 - Proceedings of the Nutrition Society

AU - Templeman, Iain

AU - Gonzalez, Javier

AU - Thompson, Dylan

AU - Betts, James

PY - 2019/3/26

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N2 - Obesity remains a major public health concern and intermittent fasting is a popular strategy for weight-loss, which may present independent health benefits. However, the number of diet books advising how fasting can be incorporated into our daily lives is several orders of magnitude greater than the number of trials examining whether fasting should be encouraged at all. This review will consider the state of current understanding regarding various forms of intermittent fasting (e.g. 5:2, time-restricted feeding and alternate-day fasting). The efficacy of these temporally defined approaches appears broadly equivalent to that of standard daily calorie restriction, although many of these models of intermittent fasting do not involve fed-fasted cycles every other 24-h sleep-wake cycle and/or permit some limited energy intake outside of prescribed feeding times. Accordingly, the intervention period therefore may not regularly alternate, may not span all or even most of any given day, and may not even involve absolute fasting. This is important because potentially advantageous physiological mechanisms may only be initiated if a post-absorptive state is sustained by uninterrupted fasting for a more prolonged duration than applied in many trials. Indeed, promising effects on fat mass and insulin sensitivity have been reported when fasting duration is routinely extended beyond 16 consecutive hours. Further progress will require such models to be tested with appropriate controls to isolate whether any possible health effects of intermittent fasting are primarily attributable to regularly protracted post-absorptive periods, or simply to the net negative energy balance indirectly elicited by any form of dietary restriction.

AB - Obesity remains a major public health concern and intermittent fasting is a popular strategy for weight-loss, which may present independent health benefits. However, the number of diet books advising how fasting can be incorporated into our daily lives is several orders of magnitude greater than the number of trials examining whether fasting should be encouraged at all. This review will consider the state of current understanding regarding various forms of intermittent fasting (e.g. 5:2, time-restricted feeding and alternate-day fasting). The efficacy of these temporally defined approaches appears broadly equivalent to that of standard daily calorie restriction, although many of these models of intermittent fasting do not involve fed-fasted cycles every other 24-h sleep-wake cycle and/or permit some limited energy intake outside of prescribed feeding times. Accordingly, the intervention period therefore may not regularly alternate, may not span all or even most of any given day, and may not even involve absolute fasting. This is important because potentially advantageous physiological mechanisms may only be initiated if a post-absorptive state is sustained by uninterrupted fasting for a more prolonged duration than applied in many trials. Indeed, promising effects on fat mass and insulin sensitivity have been reported when fasting duration is routinely extended beyond 16 consecutive hours. Further progress will require such models to be tested with appropriate controls to isolate whether any possible health effects of intermittent fasting are primarily attributable to regularly protracted post-absorptive periods, or simply to the net negative energy balance indirectly elicited by any form of dietary restriction.

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