The Optical Afterglow of GW170817: An Off-axis Structured Jet and Deep Constraints on a Globular Cluster Origin

W. Fong, P. K. Blanchard, K. D. Alexander, J. Strader, R. Margutti, A. Hajela, V. A. Villar, Y. Wu, C. S. Ye, E. Berger, R. Chornock, D. Coppejans, P. S. Cowperthwaite, T. Eftekhari, D. Giannios, C. Guidorzi, A. Kathirgamaraju, T. Laskar, A. Macfadyen, B. D. MetzgerM. Nicholl, K. Paterson, G. Terreran, D. J. Sand, L. Sironi, P. K.G. Williams, X. Xie, J. Zrake

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5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We present a revised and complete optical afterglow light curve of the binary neutron star merger GW170817, enabled by deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) F606W observations at ≈584 days post-merger, which provide a robust optical template. The light curve spans ≈110-362 days, and is fully consistent with emission from a relativistic structured jet viewed off-axis, as previously indicated by radio and X-ray data. Combined with contemporaneous radio and X-ray observations, we find no spectral evolution, with a weighted average spectral index of , demonstrating that no synchrotron break frequencies evolve between the radio and X-ray bands over these timescales. We find that an extrapolation of the post-peak temporal slope of GW170817 to the luminosities of cosmological short gamma-ray bursts matches their observed jet break times, suggesting that their explosion properties are similar, and that the primary difference in GW170817 is viewing angle. Additionally, we place a deep limit on the luminosity and mass of an underlying globular cluster (GC) of L ≲ 6.7 × 103 L o, or M ≲ 1.3 × 104 M o, at least 4 standard deviations below the peak of the GC mass function of the host galaxy, NGC 4993. This limit provides a direct and strong constraint that GW170817 did not form and merge in a GC. As highlighted here, HST (and soon the James Webb Space Telescope) enables critical observations of the optical emission from neutron star merger jets and outflows.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberL1
JournalAstrophysical Journal Letters
Volume883
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 17 Sep 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Fong, W., Blanchard, P. K., Alexander, K. D., Strader, J., Margutti, R., Hajela, A., Villar, V. A., Wu, Y., Ye, C. S., Berger, E., Chornock, R., Coppejans, D., Cowperthwaite, P. S., Eftekhari, T., Giannios, D., Guidorzi, C., Kathirgamaraju, A., Laskar, T., Macfadyen, A., ... Zrake, J. (2019). The Optical Afterglow of GW170817: An Off-axis Structured Jet and Deep Constraints on a Globular Cluster Origin. Astrophysical Journal Letters, 883(1), [L1]. https://doi.org/10.3847/2041-8213/ab3d9e