The many faces of corruption: Which one(s) to target?

Research output: Chapter or section in a book/report/conference proceedingChapter or section


As is well known, corruption has several faces, ranging from petty corruption, where ordinary citizens have to pay bribes to get goods and services, to high level political corruption. Anti-corruption policies have to take cognizance of the possible trade-offs existing between different forms of corruption such as collusion, extortion, embezzlement, and bribery. Efforts to control one form may encourage another. In such a context, the chapter argues that, despite its lower value and gift-like manifestation, extortive petty corruption is not to be ignored as it creates a 'culture' of corruption which contributes to its persistence. This form of corruption spreads easily as victims of bribery are more likely to seek bribes when they are given the chance to do so.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMarkets, Governance, and Institutions in the Process of Economic Development
EditorsA. Mishra, T. Ray
Place of PublicationOxford, U. K.
PublisherOxford University Press
Number of pages14
ISBN (Print)9780198812555
Publication statusPublished - 21 Dec 2017

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© Oxford University Press 2018. All rights reserved.


  • Bribery
  • Corruption
  • Extortion
  • Lobbying
  • Petty corruption

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Economics, Econometrics and Finance(all)
  • Business, Management and Accounting(all)


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