The late-time afterglow of the extremely energetic short burst GRB 090510 revisited

A. Nicuesa Guelbenzu, S. Klose, T. Krühler, J. Greiner, A. Rossi, D.~A. Kann, F. Olivares, A. Rau, P.~M.~J. Afonso, J. Elliott, R. Filgas, A. Yoldaș, S. McBreen, M. Nardini, P. Schady, S. Schmidl, V. Sudilovsky, A.~C. Updike, A. Yoldaș

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Abstract

Context. The Swift discovery of the short burst GRB 090510 has raised considerable attention mainly because of two reasons: first, it had a bright optical afterglow, and second it is among the most energetic events detected so far within the entire GRB population (long plus short). The afterglow of GRB 090510 was observed with Swift/UVOT and Swift/XRT and evidence of a jet break around 1.5 ks after the burst has been reported in the literature, implying that after this break the optical and X-ray light curve should fade with the same decay slope.
Aims. As noted by several authors, the post-break decay slope seen in the UVOT data is much shallower than the steep decay in the X-ray band, pointing to a (theoretically hard to understand) excess of optical flux at late times. We assess here the validity of this peculiar behavior.
Methods. We reduced and analyzed new afterglow light-curve data obtained with the multichannel imager GROND. These additional g′r′i′z′ data were then combined with the UVOT and XRT data to study the behavior of the afterglow at late times more stringently.
Results. Based on the densely sampled data set obtained with GROND, we find that the optical afterglow of GRB 090510 did indeed enter a steep decay phase starting around 22 ks after the burst. During this time the GROND optical light curve is achromatic, and its slope is identical to the slope of the X-ray data. In combination with the UVOT data this implies that a second break must have occurred in the optical light curve around 22 ks post burst, which, however, has no obvious counterpart in the X-ray band, contradicting the interpretation that this could be another jet break. 
Conclusions. The GROND data provide the missing piece of evidence that the optical afterglow of GRB 090510 did follow a post-jet break evolution at late times. The break seen in the optical light curve around 22 ks in combination with its missing counterpart in the X-ray band could be due to the passage of the injection frequency across the optical bands, as already theoretically proposed in the literature. This is possibly the first time that this passage has been clearly seen in an optical afterglow. In addition, our results imply that there is no more evidence for an excess of flux in the optical bands at late times.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberL7
Pages (from-to)1-5
Number of pages5
JournalAstronomy & Astrophysics
Volume538
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 8 Feb 2012

Keywords

  • gamma-ray burst

Cite this

Nicuesa Guelbenzu, A., Klose, S., Krühler, T., Greiner, J., Rossi, A., Kann, D. A., ... Yoldaș, A. (2012). The late-time afterglow of the extremely energetic short burst GRB 090510 revisited. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 538, 1-5. [L7]. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201118416

The late-time afterglow of the extremely energetic short burst GRB 090510 revisited. / Nicuesa Guelbenzu, A.; Klose, S.; Krühler, T.; Greiner, J.; Rossi, A.; Kann, D.~A.; Olivares, F.; Rau, A.; Afonso, P.~M.~J.; Elliott, J.; Filgas, R.; Yoldaș, A.; McBreen, S.; Nardini, M.; Schady, P.; Schmidl, S.; Sudilovsky, V.; Updike, A.~C.; Yoldaș, A.

In: Astronomy & Astrophysics, Vol. 538, L7, 08.02.2012, p. 1-5.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Nicuesa Guelbenzu, A, Klose, S, Krühler, T, Greiner, J, Rossi, A, Kann, DA, Olivares, F, Rau, A, Afonso, PMJ, Elliott, J, Filgas, R, Yoldaș, A, McBreen, S, Nardini, M, Schady, P, Schmidl, S, Sudilovsky, V, Updike, AC & Yoldaș, A 2012, 'The late-time afterglow of the extremely energetic short burst GRB 090510 revisited', Astronomy & Astrophysics, vol. 538, L7, pp. 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201118416
Nicuesa Guelbenzu A, Klose S, Krühler T, Greiner J, Rossi A, Kann DA et al. The late-time afterglow of the extremely energetic short burst GRB 090510 revisited. Astronomy & Astrophysics. 2012 Feb 8;538:1-5. L7. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201118416
Nicuesa Guelbenzu, A. ; Klose, S. ; Krühler, T. ; Greiner, J. ; Rossi, A. ; Kann, D.~A. ; Olivares, F. ; Rau, A. ; Afonso, P.~M.~J. ; Elliott, J. ; Filgas, R. ; Yoldaș, A. ; McBreen, S. ; Nardini, M. ; Schady, P. ; Schmidl, S. ; Sudilovsky, V. ; Updike, A.~C. ; Yoldaș, A. / The late-time afterglow of the extremely energetic short burst GRB 090510 revisited. In: Astronomy & Astrophysics. 2012 ; Vol. 538. pp. 1-5.
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abstract = "Context. The Swift discovery of the short burst GRB 090510 has raised considerable attention mainly because of two reasons: first, it had a bright optical afterglow, and second it is among the most energetic events detected so far within the entire GRB population (long plus short). The afterglow of GRB 090510 was observed with Swift/UVOT and Swift/XRT and evidence of a jet break around 1.5 ks after the burst has been reported in the literature, implying that after this break the optical and X-ray light curve should fade with the same decay slope.Aims. As noted by several authors, the post-break decay slope seen in the UVOT data is much shallower than the steep decay in the X-ray band, pointing to a (theoretically hard to understand) excess of optical flux at late times. We assess here the validity of this peculiar behavior.Methods. We reduced and analyzed new afterglow light-curve data obtained with the multichannel imager GROND. These additional g′r′i′z′ data were then combined with the UVOT and XRT data to study the behavior of the afterglow at late times more stringently.Results. Based on the densely sampled data set obtained with GROND, we find that the optical afterglow of GRB 090510 did indeed enter a steep decay phase starting around 22 ks after the burst. During this time the GROND optical light curve is achromatic, and its slope is identical to the slope of the X-ray data. In combination with the UVOT data this implies that a second break must have occurred in the optical light curve around 22 ks post burst, which, however, has no obvious counterpart in the X-ray band, contradicting the interpretation that this could be another jet break. Conclusions. The GROND data provide the missing piece of evidence that the optical afterglow of GRB 090510 did follow a post-jet break evolution at late times. The break seen in the optical light curve around 22 ks in combination with its missing counterpart in the X-ray band could be due to the passage of the injection frequency across the optical bands, as already theoretically proposed in the literature. This is possibly the first time that this passage has been clearly seen in an optical afterglow. In addition, our results imply that there is no more evidence for an excess of flux in the optical bands at late times.",
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T1 - The late-time afterglow of the extremely energetic short burst GRB 090510 revisited

AU - Nicuesa Guelbenzu, A.

AU - Klose, S.

AU - Krühler, T.

AU - Greiner, J.

AU - Rossi, A.

AU - Kann, D.~A.

AU - Olivares, F.

AU - Rau, A.

AU - Afonso, P.~M.~J.

AU - Elliott, J.

AU - Filgas, R.

AU - Yoldaș, A.

AU - McBreen, S.

AU - Nardini, M.

AU - Schady, P.

AU - Schmidl, S.

AU - Sudilovsky, V.

AU - Updike, A.~C.

AU - Yoldaș, A.

PY - 2012/2/8

Y1 - 2012/2/8

N2 - Context. The Swift discovery of the short burst GRB 090510 has raised considerable attention mainly because of two reasons: first, it had a bright optical afterglow, and second it is among the most energetic events detected so far within the entire GRB population (long plus short). The afterglow of GRB 090510 was observed with Swift/UVOT and Swift/XRT and evidence of a jet break around 1.5 ks after the burst has been reported in the literature, implying that after this break the optical and X-ray light curve should fade with the same decay slope.Aims. As noted by several authors, the post-break decay slope seen in the UVOT data is much shallower than the steep decay in the X-ray band, pointing to a (theoretically hard to understand) excess of optical flux at late times. We assess here the validity of this peculiar behavior.Methods. We reduced and analyzed new afterglow light-curve data obtained with the multichannel imager GROND. These additional g′r′i′z′ data were then combined with the UVOT and XRT data to study the behavior of the afterglow at late times more stringently.Results. Based on the densely sampled data set obtained with GROND, we find that the optical afterglow of GRB 090510 did indeed enter a steep decay phase starting around 22 ks after the burst. During this time the GROND optical light curve is achromatic, and its slope is identical to the slope of the X-ray data. In combination with the UVOT data this implies that a second break must have occurred in the optical light curve around 22 ks post burst, which, however, has no obvious counterpart in the X-ray band, contradicting the interpretation that this could be another jet break. Conclusions. The GROND data provide the missing piece of evidence that the optical afterglow of GRB 090510 did follow a post-jet break evolution at late times. The break seen in the optical light curve around 22 ks in combination with its missing counterpart in the X-ray band could be due to the passage of the injection frequency across the optical bands, as already theoretically proposed in the literature. This is possibly the first time that this passage has been clearly seen in an optical afterglow. In addition, our results imply that there is no more evidence for an excess of flux in the optical bands at late times.

AB - Context. The Swift discovery of the short burst GRB 090510 has raised considerable attention mainly because of two reasons: first, it had a bright optical afterglow, and second it is among the most energetic events detected so far within the entire GRB population (long plus short). The afterglow of GRB 090510 was observed with Swift/UVOT and Swift/XRT and evidence of a jet break around 1.5 ks after the burst has been reported in the literature, implying that after this break the optical and X-ray light curve should fade with the same decay slope.Aims. As noted by several authors, the post-break decay slope seen in the UVOT data is much shallower than the steep decay in the X-ray band, pointing to a (theoretically hard to understand) excess of optical flux at late times. We assess here the validity of this peculiar behavior.Methods. We reduced and analyzed new afterglow light-curve data obtained with the multichannel imager GROND. These additional g′r′i′z′ data were then combined with the UVOT and XRT data to study the behavior of the afterglow at late times more stringently.Results. Based on the densely sampled data set obtained with GROND, we find that the optical afterglow of GRB 090510 did indeed enter a steep decay phase starting around 22 ks after the burst. During this time the GROND optical light curve is achromatic, and its slope is identical to the slope of the X-ray data. In combination with the UVOT data this implies that a second break must have occurred in the optical light curve around 22 ks post burst, which, however, has no obvious counterpart in the X-ray band, contradicting the interpretation that this could be another jet break. Conclusions. The GROND data provide the missing piece of evidence that the optical afterglow of GRB 090510 did follow a post-jet break evolution at late times. The break seen in the optical light curve around 22 ks in combination with its missing counterpart in the X-ray band could be due to the passage of the injection frequency across the optical bands, as already theoretically proposed in the literature. This is possibly the first time that this passage has been clearly seen in an optical afterglow. In addition, our results imply that there is no more evidence for an excess of flux in the optical bands at late times.

KW - gamma-ray burst

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DO - 10.1051/0004-6361/201118416

M3 - Article

VL - 538

SP - 1

EP - 5

JO - Astronomy & Astrophysics

JF - Astronomy & Astrophysics

SN - 0004-6361

M1 - L7

ER -