The KMOS3D Survey: Demographics and Properties of Galactic Outflows at z = 0.6-2.7

N. M.Förster Schreiber, H. Übler, R. Genzel, E. Wisnioski, S. Belli, T. Shimizu, D. Lutz, M. Fossati, R. Herrera-Camus, J. T. Mendel, L. J. Tacconi, D. Wilman, A. Beifiori, G. B. Brammer, A. Burkert, C. M. Carollo, F. Eisenhauer, M. Fabricius, S. J. Lilly, I. MomchevaT. Naab, E. J. Nelson, S. H. Price, A. Renzini, R. Saglia, A. Sternberg, P. Van Dokkum, S. Wuyts

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We present a census of ionized gas outflows in 599 normal galaxies at redshift 0.6 < z < 2.7, mostly based on integral field spectroscopy of Hα, [N ii], and [S ii] line emission. The sample fairly homogeneously covers the main sequence of star-forming galaxies with masses 9.0 < log(M /M o) < 11.7, and probes into the regimes of quiescent galaxies and starburst outliers. About one-third exhibits the high-velocity component indicative of outflows, roughly equally split into winds driven by star formation (SF) and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The incidence of SF-driven winds correlates mainly with SF properties. These outflows have typical velocities of ∼450 km s-1, local electron densities of n e ∼ 380 cm-3, modest mass loading factors of ∼0.1-0.2 at all galaxy masses, and energetics compatible with momentum driving by young stellar populations. The SF-driven winds may escape from log(M /M o) ≲ 10.3 galaxies, but substantial mass, momentum, and energy in hotter and colder outflow phases seem required to account for low galaxy formation efficiencies in the low-mass regime. Faster AGN-driven outflows (∼1000-2000 km s-1) are commonly detected above log(M /M o) ∼ 10.7, in up to ∼75% of log(M /M o) 11.2 galaxies. The incidence, strength, and velocity of AGN-driven winds strongly correlates with stellar mass and central concentration. Their outflowing ionized gas appears denser (n e ∼ 1000 cm-3), and possibly compressed and shock-excited. These winds have comparable mass loading factors as the SF-driven winds but carry ∼10 (∼50) times more momentum (energy). The results confirm our previous findings of high-duty-cycle, energy-driven outflows powered by AGN above the Schechter mass, which may contribute to SF quenching.

Original languageEnglish
Article number21
Number of pages26
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 9 Apr 2019


  • Galaxies: Evolution
  • galaxies: High-redshift
  • galaxies: Kinematics and dynamics
  • infrared: Galaxies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


The Bath - Max Planck connection: from stellar explosions to galactic star formation and enrichment

Wuyts, S., Schady, P., Van Eerten, H., Avery, C., Easeman, B., Bertemes, C., Ayache, E., Förster schreiber, N. M., Genzel, R., Yates, R., Burgess, J. M., Greiner, J., Chen, J. & Burkert, A.


Project: Research-related funding

Cite this

Schreiber, N. M. F., Übler, H., Genzel, R., Wisnioski, E., Belli, S., Shimizu, T., Lutz, D., Fossati, M., Herrera-Camus, R., Mendel, J. T., Tacconi, L. J., Wilman, D., Beifiori, A., Brammer, G. B., Burkert, A., Carollo, C. M., Eisenhauer, F., Fabricius, M., Lilly, S. J., ... Wuyts, S. (2019). The KMOS3D Survey: Demographics and Properties of Galactic Outflows at z = 0.6-2.7. Astrophysical Journal, 875(1), [21].