This chapter sets out the future of low-income families in OECD member countries to 2030. It starts by reviewing the current state of low-income families, how they have changed over recent decades and the factors that have driven these changes. It then looks at the influence that policy has had on low-income families and at variations across countries, examining the role of taxes and transfers, institutions, and policies towards families with children. It then looks at three specific issues for poor families: the persistence of poverty, the experience of young people, and migration. The following sections look to the future, examining respectively how low-income families might evolve in the future and at the challenges and policy responses that will be needed to deal with newly emerging issues.