The Exposure of Workers at a Busy Road Node to PM2.5: Occupational Risk Characterisation and Mitigation Measures

Obuks A. Ejohwomu, Majeed Oladokun, Olalekan Oshodi, Teslim Bukoye, David John Edwards, Nwabueze Emekwuru, Olamide Adenuga, Adegboye Sotumbo, Ola Uduku, Mobolanle Balogun, Rose Alani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (SciVal)


The link between air pollution and health burden in urban areas has been well researched. This has led to a plethora of effective policy-induced monitoring and interventions in the global south. However, the implication of pollutant species like PM 2.5 in low middle income countries (LMIC) still remains a concern. By adopting a positivist philosophy and deductive reasoning, this research addresses the question, to what extent can we deliver effective interventions to improve air quality at a building structure located at a busy road node in a LMIC? This study assessed the temporal variability of pollutants around the university environment to provide a novel comparative evaluation of occupational shift patterns and the use of facemasks as risk control interventions. The findings indicate that the concentration of PM 2.5, which can be as high as 300% compared to the WHO reference, was exacerbated by episodic events. With a notable decay period of approximately one-week, adequate protection and/or avoidance of hotspots are required for at-risk individuals within a busy road node. The use of masks with 80% efficiency provides sufficient mitigation against exposure risks to elevated PM 2.5 concentrations without occupational shift, and 50% efficiency with at least ‘2 h ON, 2 h OFF’ occupational shift scenario.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4636
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 12 Apr 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: This research was funded by The University of Manchester’s Research England Global Challenges Research Fund (GCRF) QR grant.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • control intervention
  • elevated PM concentration
  • episodic event
  • low and middle income countries (LMIC)
  • occupational exposure
  • reference concentration
  • risk characterisation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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