Differences in the mechanisms underlying tolerance and mu-opioid receptor desensitization resulting from exposure to opioid agonists of different efficacy have been suggested previously. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of protein kinase C (PKC) and G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) inhibition on antinociceptive tolerance in vivo to opioid agonists of different efficacy. A rapid (8-h) tolerance-induction model was used where each opioid was repeatedly administered to naive mice. Animals were then challenged with the opioid after injection of a kinase inhibitor to determine its effects on the level of tolerance. Tolerance to meperidine, morphine, or fentanyl was fully reversed by the PKC inhibitor 12-(2-cyanoethyl)-6,7,12,13-tetrahydro-13-methyl-5-oxo-5H-indolo(2,3-a)p yrrolo(3,4-c)carbazole (Go6976). However, in vivo tolerance to [D-Ala(2), N-Me-Phe(4), Gly(5)-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) was not reversed by PKC inhibition. The novel small-molecule GRK inhibitors beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 1 inhibitor and 2-(8-[(dimethylamino) methyl]-6,7,8,9-tetrahydropyridol[1,2-a]indol-3-yl)-3-(1-methylindol-3-y l)maleimide (Ro 32-0432) did not reverse the tolerance to meperidine, fentanyl, or morphine but did reverse the tolerance to DAMGO. To correlate GRK-dependent DAMGO-induced tolerance with mu-opioid receptor desensitization, we used in vitro whole-cell patch-clamp recording from mouse locus coeruleus neurons and observed that the GRK inhibitors reduced DAMGO-induced desensitization of mu-opioid receptors, whereas the PKC inhibitor had no effect. These results suggest that tolerance induced by low- and moderate-efficacy mu-opioid receptor agonists is dependent on PKC, whereas tolerance induced by the high-efficacy agonist DAMGO is dependent on GRK.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics|
|Publication status||Published - 2010|