Background: Altered gait could influence knee joint moment magnitudes and cumulative damage over time. Gait modifications have been shown to reduce knee loading in people with knee osteoarthritis during walking, although this has not been explored in multiple daily activities. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of different foot orientations on knee loading during multiple daily activities in people with and without knee osteoarthritis. Methods: Thirty people with knee osteoarthritis and twenty-nine without (control) performed walking, stair ambulation and sit-to-stand across a range of foot progression angles (neutral, toe-in, toe-out and preferred). Peak knee adduction moment, knee adduction moment impulse and knee pain were compared across a continuous range of foot orientations, between activities, and groups. Findings: Increased foot progression angle (more toe-in) reduced 1st peak knee adduction moment across all activities in both knee osteoarthritis and control (P < 0.001). There was a greater reduction in knee adduction moment in the control group during walking and stair ambulation (P ≤ 0.006), where the knee osteoarthritis group already walked preferably less toe-out than the control group. Under preferred condition, stair descent had the greatest knee loading and knee pain compared to other activities. Interpretation: Although increased foot progression angle (toward toe-in) appeared to be more effective in reducing knee loading for all activities, toe-in modification might not benefit stair ambulation. Future gait modification should likely be personalised to each patient considering the individual difference in preferred gait and knee alignment required to shift the loading medially or laterally.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106287
JournalClinical Biomechanics
Early online date10 Jun 2024
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 10 Jun 2024


  • Daily activity
  • Foot progression angle
  • Knee adduction moment
  • Knee loading
  • Knee OA
  • Knee pain

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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