The Effect of Degraded Eye Tracking Accuracy on Interactions in VR

Ajoy Savio Fernandes, T. Scott Murdison, Immo Schuetz, Oleg Komogortsev, Michael J. Proulx

Research output: Chapter or section in a book/report/conference proceedingChapter in a published conference proceeding


Gaze-based user interfaces and interactions are becoming more prevalent in augmented and virtual reality (AR/VR). The effectiveness of eye tracking for interaction depends on its quality. Many studies discuss eye tracking as an input and interaction modality but do not provide details about eye tracking quality, making it difficult to compare findings. Here we implement a framework to degrade accuracy error with the user in the loop. We then approximate calibration error, with those degradations applied in each block to provide an "Effective Gaze Error."Participants selected single targets (3° or 5° diameter) using an eye tracking sampling frequency and display rate of 120 Hz. Higher "Effective Gaze Error"on smaller targets resulted in decreased human performance and subjective evaluations. Our experiment framework and results provide a starting point for future studies assessing how gaze accuracy degradation impacts performance, beyond interactions tasks.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings - ETRA 2024, ACM Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications
EditorsStephen N. Spencer
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery
ISBN (Electronic)9798400706073
Publication statusPublished - 4 Jun 2024
Event16th Annual ACM Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications, ETRA 2024 - Hybrid, Glasgow, UK United Kingdom
Duration: 4 Jun 20247 Jun 2024

Publication series

NameEye Tracking Research and Applications Symposium (ETRA)


Conference16th Annual ACM Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications, ETRA 2024
Country/TerritoryUK United Kingdom
CityHybrid, Glasgow


  • 3D user interaction
  • Eye tracking
  • Gaze targeting
  • Input devices
  • User experience

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Ophthalmology
  • Sensory Systems

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