The Danish Version of the 20-Item Prosopagnosia Index (PI20): Translation, Validation and a Link to Face Perception

Erling Nørkær, Ester Guðbjörnsdóttir, Sofie Black Roest, Punit Shah, Christian Gerlach, Randi Starrfelt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (SciVal)


Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by face recognition problems. Psychometrically sound self-report measures of face recognition problems are important tools in classification of DP. A widely used measure of such problems is the 20-item prosopagnosia index (PI20). Here, we present a Danish translation of the PI20 (PI20DK). We administered the PI20DK alongside three objective measures of face and object processing performance to 119 participants to validate the PI20DK. Further, we assess the underlying factor structure of the PI20DK. Finally, as the first study in the field, we investigate the association between self-reported face recognition ability and face perception performance. The project was preregistered prior to data collection. The results suggest excellent convergent validity, discriminant validity and internal consistency for the PI20DK. A confirmatory factor analysis, however, indicates a suboptimal fit of the PI20DK to a one factor solution. An investigation of the association between the PI20DK and face perception suggests that the poor fit may reflect that the PI20DK measures problems with face recognition in general and not specifically face memory problems.

Original languageEnglish
Article number337
JournalBrain Sciences
Issue number2
Early online date16 Feb 2023
Publication statusPublished - 28 Feb 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Independent Research Fund Denmark (DFF-024-00139B) to Randi Starrfelt.

Data Availability Statement: Raw data (stripped of demographic variables due to data protection
concerns), the Danish version of the 20-item prosopagnosia index, a document detailing the translation
process as well as the R script used to analyze the present data are all available on Open Science
Framework (OSF) and can be accessed via the following link:
(accessed on 12 February 2023)


  • developmental prosopagnosia
  • face perception
  • face recognition
  • object recognition
  • self-report measures

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)


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