The COVID-19 Preventive Behaviors Index: Development and Validation in Two Samples From the United Kingdom

Glynis M. Breakwell, Emanuele Fino, Rusi Jaspal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Citations (SciVal)


Monitoring compliance with, and understanding the factors affecting, COVID-19 preventive behaviors requires a robust index of the level of subjective likelihood that the individual will engage in key COVID-19 preventive behaviors. In this article, the psychometric properties of the COVID-19 Preventive Behaviors Index (CPBI), including its development and validation in two samples in the United Kingdom, are described. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed on data from 470 participants in the United Kingdom who provided demographic information and completed the Fear of COVID-19 Scale, the COVID-19 Own Risk Appraisal Scale (CORAS) and the CPBI. Results showed that a unidimensional, 10-item model fits the data well, with satisfactory fit indices, internal consistency and high item loadings onto the factor. The CPBI correlated positively with both fear and perceived risk of COVID-19, suggesting good concurrent validity. The CPBI is a measure of the likelihood of engaging in preventive activity, rather than one of intention or actual action. It is adaptable enough to be used over time as a monitoring instrument by policy makers and a modeling tool by researchers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)77-86
Number of pages10
JournalEvaluation and the Health Professions
Issue number1
Early online date12 Jan 2021
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2021


  • COVID-19 Preventive Behaviors Index
  • fear of COVID-19
  • perceived risk
  • prevention
  • scale validation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Policy


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