The causal role of breakfast in energy balance and health

A randomized controlled trial in obese adults

Enhad Chowdhury, Judith Richardson, Geoffrey D Holman, Kostas Tsintzas, Dylan Thompson, James Betts

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Abstract

Background: The causal nature of associations between breakfast and health remain unclear in obese individuals.
Objective: To conduct a randomized controlled trial examining causal links between breakfast habits and components of energy balance in free-living obese humans.
Design: The Bath Breakfast Project is a randomized controlled trial with repeated-measures at baseline and follow-up amongst a cohort in South-West England aged 21-60 y with Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA)-derived fat mass indices ≥13 kg·m-2 (women; n=15) and ≥9 kg·m-2 (men; n=8). Components of energy balance (resting metabolic rate, physical activity thermogenesis, DIT, energy intake) were measured under free-living conditions with random allocation to daily breakfast (≥700 kcal before 1100 h) or extended fasting (0 kcal until 1200 h) for 6 weeks, with baseline and follow-up measures of health markers (e.g. hematology/adipose biopsies).
Results: Breakfast resulted in greater physical activity thermogenesis during the morning than when fasting during that period (difference:188 kcal·d-1; 95%CI=40, 335) but without any consistent effect on 24-h physical activity thermogenesis (difference:272 kcal·d-1; 95%CI= -254, 798). Energy intake was not significantly greater with breakfast than fasting (difference:338 kcal·d-1; 95%CI=-313, 988). Body mass increased across both groups over time but with no treatment effects on body composition nor any change in RMR (stable within 8 kcal·d-1). Metabolic/cardiovascular health also did not respond to treatments, except for a reduced insulinemic response to OGTT over time with daily breakfast relative to an increase with daily fasting (p=0.05).
Conclusions: In obese adults, daily breakfast causes greater physical activity during the morning, whereas morning fasting results in partial dietary compensation (i.e. greater energy intake) later in the day. There were no differences between groups in weight change and most health outcomes but insulin sensitivity was increased with breakfast relative to fasting.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)747-756
Number of pages10
JournalThe American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume103
Issue number3
Early online date10 Feb 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2016

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Breakfast
Randomized Controlled Trials
Fasting
Health
Thermogenesis
Energy Intake
Exercise
Basal Metabolism
Social Conditions
Photon Absorptiometry
Hematology
Glucose Tolerance Test
Random Allocation
Body Composition
Baths
England
Habits
Insulin Resistance
Fats
Biopsy

Keywords

  • breakfast
  • energy balance
  • fasting
  • physical activity
  • energy intake
  • appetite regulation
  • obesity
  • metabolism

Cite this

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title = "The causal role of breakfast in energy balance and health: A randomized controlled trial in obese adults",
abstract = "Background: The causal nature of associations between breakfast and health remain unclear in obese individuals.Objective: To conduct a randomized controlled trial examining causal links between breakfast habits and components of energy balance in free-living obese humans.Design: The Bath Breakfast Project is a randomized controlled trial with repeated-measures at baseline and follow-up amongst a cohort in South-West England aged 21-60 y with Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA)-derived fat mass indices ≥13 kg·m-2 (women; n=15) and ≥9 kg·m-2 (men; n=8). Components of energy balance (resting metabolic rate, physical activity thermogenesis, DIT, energy intake) were measured under free-living conditions with random allocation to daily breakfast (≥700 kcal before 1100 h) or extended fasting (0 kcal until 1200 h) for 6 weeks, with baseline and follow-up measures of health markers (e.g. hematology/adipose biopsies).Results: Breakfast resulted in greater physical activity thermogenesis during the morning than when fasting during that period (difference:188 kcal·d-1; 95{\%}CI=40, 335) but without any consistent effect on 24-h physical activity thermogenesis (difference:272 kcal·d-1; 95{\%}CI= -254, 798). Energy intake was not significantly greater with breakfast than fasting (difference:338 kcal·d-1; 95{\%}CI=-313, 988). Body mass increased across both groups over time but with no treatment effects on body composition nor any change in RMR (stable within 8 kcal·d-1). Metabolic/cardiovascular health also did not respond to treatments, except for a reduced insulinemic response to OGTT over time with daily breakfast relative to an increase with daily fasting (p=0.05). Conclusions: In obese adults, daily breakfast causes greater physical activity during the morning, whereas morning fasting results in partial dietary compensation (i.e. greater energy intake) later in the day. There were no differences between groups in weight change and most health outcomes but insulin sensitivity was increased with breakfast relative to fasting.",
keywords = "breakfast, energy balance, fasting, physical activity, energy intake, appetite regulation, obesity, metabolism",
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T1 - The causal role of breakfast in energy balance and health

T2 - A randomized controlled trial in obese adults

AU - Chowdhury, Enhad

AU - Richardson, Judith

AU - Holman, Geoffrey D

AU - Tsintzas, Kostas

AU - Thompson, Dylan

AU - Betts, James

PY - 2016/3/1

Y1 - 2016/3/1

N2 - Background: The causal nature of associations between breakfast and health remain unclear in obese individuals.Objective: To conduct a randomized controlled trial examining causal links between breakfast habits and components of energy balance in free-living obese humans.Design: The Bath Breakfast Project is a randomized controlled trial with repeated-measures at baseline and follow-up amongst a cohort in South-West England aged 21-60 y with Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA)-derived fat mass indices ≥13 kg·m-2 (women; n=15) and ≥9 kg·m-2 (men; n=8). Components of energy balance (resting metabolic rate, physical activity thermogenesis, DIT, energy intake) were measured under free-living conditions with random allocation to daily breakfast (≥700 kcal before 1100 h) or extended fasting (0 kcal until 1200 h) for 6 weeks, with baseline and follow-up measures of health markers (e.g. hematology/adipose biopsies).Results: Breakfast resulted in greater physical activity thermogenesis during the morning than when fasting during that period (difference:188 kcal·d-1; 95%CI=40, 335) but without any consistent effect on 24-h physical activity thermogenesis (difference:272 kcal·d-1; 95%CI= -254, 798). Energy intake was not significantly greater with breakfast than fasting (difference:338 kcal·d-1; 95%CI=-313, 988). Body mass increased across both groups over time but with no treatment effects on body composition nor any change in RMR (stable within 8 kcal·d-1). Metabolic/cardiovascular health also did not respond to treatments, except for a reduced insulinemic response to OGTT over time with daily breakfast relative to an increase with daily fasting (p=0.05). Conclusions: In obese adults, daily breakfast causes greater physical activity during the morning, whereas morning fasting results in partial dietary compensation (i.e. greater energy intake) later in the day. There were no differences between groups in weight change and most health outcomes but insulin sensitivity was increased with breakfast relative to fasting.

AB - Background: The causal nature of associations between breakfast and health remain unclear in obese individuals.Objective: To conduct a randomized controlled trial examining causal links between breakfast habits and components of energy balance in free-living obese humans.Design: The Bath Breakfast Project is a randomized controlled trial with repeated-measures at baseline and follow-up amongst a cohort in South-West England aged 21-60 y with Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA)-derived fat mass indices ≥13 kg·m-2 (women; n=15) and ≥9 kg·m-2 (men; n=8). Components of energy balance (resting metabolic rate, physical activity thermogenesis, DIT, energy intake) were measured under free-living conditions with random allocation to daily breakfast (≥700 kcal before 1100 h) or extended fasting (0 kcal until 1200 h) for 6 weeks, with baseline and follow-up measures of health markers (e.g. hematology/adipose biopsies).Results: Breakfast resulted in greater physical activity thermogenesis during the morning than when fasting during that period (difference:188 kcal·d-1; 95%CI=40, 335) but without any consistent effect on 24-h physical activity thermogenesis (difference:272 kcal·d-1; 95%CI= -254, 798). Energy intake was not significantly greater with breakfast than fasting (difference:338 kcal·d-1; 95%CI=-313, 988). Body mass increased across both groups over time but with no treatment effects on body composition nor any change in RMR (stable within 8 kcal·d-1). Metabolic/cardiovascular health also did not respond to treatments, except for a reduced insulinemic response to OGTT over time with daily breakfast relative to an increase with daily fasting (p=0.05). Conclusions: In obese adults, daily breakfast causes greater physical activity during the morning, whereas morning fasting results in partial dietary compensation (i.e. greater energy intake) later in the day. There were no differences between groups in weight change and most health outcomes but insulin sensitivity was increased with breakfast relative to fasting.

KW - breakfast

KW - energy balance

KW - fasting

KW - physical activity

KW - energy intake

KW - appetite regulation

KW - obesity

KW - metabolism

U2 - 10.3945/ajcn.115.122044

DO - 10.3945/ajcn.115.122044

M3 - Article

VL - 103

SP - 747

EP - 756

JO - The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

JF - The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

SN - 0002-9165

IS - 3

ER -