The Bologna process

Jeroen Bartelse, Jeroen Huisman

Research output: Chapter or section in a book/report/conference proceedingChapter or section


The Bologna process is a European-wide, intergovernmental endeavor to create a coherent and cohesive higher education zone. Two objectives were set at the start of this process in 1999: The adoption of a system of comparable degrees and the adoption of two main cycles of higher education- the bachelor's degree and the master's degree. At this point in the process, forty-five countries have joined the process. In the last two ministerial conferences on the Bologna conference, those in Berlin (Berlin Communique 2002) and Bergen (Bergen Communique 2005), the third cycle of higher education, the doctoral degree, was addressed, and in London (2007) progress will be evaluated again. The incorporation of the third cycle in the Bologna process seems to forecast a period during which doctoral education will feature high on European science and education agendas. Current policy debates on doctoral education in Europe will be addressed in this chapter. For a good understanding of these debates it is worthwhile to put them into historical perspective.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationToward a Global PhD?
Subtitle of host publicationForces and Forms in Doctoral Education Worldwide
EditorsM. Nerad, M. Heggelund
Place of PublicationSeattle, U. S. A.
PublisherUniversity of Washington Press
ISBN (Print)9780295988023
Publication statusPublished - 2008


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