Coupled nanogenerators integrate multiple mechanisms of power generation into a single structure by using multifunctional materials to enable efficient energy harvesting. Flexible ferroelectric films, due to their multifunctionality and responsiveness to thermal, optical, and mechanical stimuli, are ideal candidates for such coupled nanogenerators. However, there is limited work on the impact of temperature modulation on flexible coupled nanogenerators despite the significance of temperature on electric output, particularly near or beyond the Curie temperature. Here, we construct a flexible temperature-modulated flexo-photovoltaic coupled nanogenerator based on ferroelectric BaTiO3 film subject to excitation by vibration and light within a wide temperature range, surpassing the Curie temperature of BaTiO3. Furthermore, the use of flexo-photovoltaic coupling achieves a multiple-perspective coupling enhancement, demonstrating “1 + 1 > 2”. This work advances the creation of efficient and adaptable energy harvesting technologies in flexible systems, which opens new possibilities for extreme environmental applications in multiple energy harvesting.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1907-1914
Number of pages8
JournalACS Energy Letters
Issue number4
Early online date3 Apr 2024
Publication statusPublished - 12 Apr 2024

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Materials Chemistry


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