Modifications to the coolant and oil circuits of a modern production 2.4l diesel engine have been made in an attempt to promote oil warm-up to reduce fuel consumption. The new system used oil to cool exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) gases and incorporates a number of coolant flow control valves to reduce heat loss during warm-up. The engine was run over cold-start New European Drive Cycles with various flow strategies as a screening exercise to understand the behaviour of the system. Fuel consumption benefits of up to 4 per cent were observed, but these were accompanied by 3 per cent increases in nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. Detailed analysis of the coolant flows and temperatures showed that, when throttling the flow, the mass of coolant in the degas bottle and radiator could be isolated from the system during warm-up, essentially reducing the thermal inertia. Heat transfer directly to the oil from the EGR gases rather than via the coolant allowed more heat to be put into the oil, with engine oil supply temperatures up to 6 C hotter; however, it was not possible to verify that the oil was hotter at the bearings, valve train, and cylinder liner. The engine strategy was seen to react to the faster warm-up and to retard injection timing, reducing NOx but also compromising overall fuel consumption benefits. Further tests were conducted with various injection timings to establish a NOx-fuel consumption trade-off to demonstrate further benefits when the engine strategy is included in the operation of novel thermal management systems.
|Journal||Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Feb 2011|